No. 87 - April 1990



by BENJAMIN BREWSTER - #693 "Arcturus"

I quickly tired of the constant cleating and uncleating of the Genoa as sail was adjusted underway.  A large side clam cleat mounted on the cockpit coaming has been the answer for me.  It is conveniently adjacent to the coaming pocket for stowage of the sheet tail and is flat enough not to interfere with sitting comfort.  To lead fair, the port cleat is aft of the winch pocket and the starboard forward.

You will also notice from the picture of the port winch and clam cleat that I replaced the swivel block on the Genoa track with a double lead block.  This double lead block has a spring loaded plunger pin and I drilled the track to accommodate the pin at appropriate intervals.  The net result is a Genoa lead block that runs very freely, is as close to the track as possible and is easily adjustable, even under moderate load.

Arcturus was eight years old when we got her and the outside of the coaming was showing considerable wear from chafing where the Genoa sheet exits the turning block on the way forward to the winch, particularly on the starboard side.  On each side I added a 1/2" plywood base for the turning block which moved the sheave outboard enough to eliminate this chafing.

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In the December 1989 Issue, Norman Remer offers a solution to the problem of unsanitary water tanks.  His advice is well taken, but I have developed an easier way to wash the tank.  Several seasons ago when winterizing the plumbing with antifreeze (a mistake!) I was forced to thoroughly flush the water tank before I could use it.  Faced with the prospect of pumping the tank dry with the hand pump, I devised a system to use gravity and siphon the tank while the boat was on its cradle.

1. Cut the outlet hose from the tank at a point higher than the tip of the tank. (This prevents tank water from draining into the bilge.)  A good spot is midway along the horizontal run along the starboard bulkhead.

2. Connect a garden hose to the tank side of the outlet hose.  Most hardware or plumbing supply stores stock a variety of fittings with which you can couple the two hoses.

3. Connect the garden hose to a faucet and fill the tank.  Do not use extremely high pressure as the hose Tanzer used is not a high pressure hose.  Also, be certain to remove the cap from the water intake.

4. When the tank is filled, (you can tell this when the water overflows from the intake and drains out the cockpit drains), shut off the water and disconnect the hose from the faucet.  Now, so long as the end of the hose is lower than the water tank, the water will siphon out of the tank.

5. Join the two halves of the water hose using a barbed coupler and hose clamps.

A common cause for foul tasting water is the type of hose used to fill the tank.  Certain types of common garden hoses leach chemicals into the water which impart a foul chemical taste.  Use only hoses which are safe for potable water to fill your tanks, or use milk or water jugs.  Remember, for the siphon to work, the garden hose must be full and outlet lower than tank.


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And now for the sad story of the sinking of Sistiana (#149) and of her glorious resurrection.

First of all, she's no spring chicken, having been built in 1972.  It was well before the change in the C/B design which began with hull #291.  If as many as 10 of those early Tanzers were C/B models, then there may have been 20 or 30 built with Sistiana's design.  It's probably impossible to know how many of these are still afloat, but judging from the boat's popularity and soundness of her construction, there must be quite a few still around.  Two important considerations are whether these boats are left in the water year 'round or hauled and dry-stored in the winter and whether they're kept in salt or fresh water.  In any case, a detailed analysis of Sistiana's particular problem indicates that a warning might need to go out to other owners with similar situations.

While she was probably leaking for a longer period of time, Sistiana finally went down over the course of one night in

January 1989.  She'd been in the Chesapeake Bay (salt water) for about four years, stored in a slip that's two to three feet deep at low tide.  She was discovered at 7:00 am resting on the bottom with just her mast and forehatch above water.  Believe it or not, the Nicro solar vent mounted in the forehatch was and still is working fine.  After hauling and clean-out, she was carefully lowered back in the water to see where the leak originated.  Once the offending location was determined, she was brought up on the beach, where she stayed for several months while repairs and various other projects were completed.

The leak occurred at the junction of the C/B pennant tube and the hull and when the mess was removed, a crumbling, thin­-walled aluminum tube was found!  About an inch in diameter, it passed through a matching hole in the hull and was wrapped in Fiberglas.  The total diameter, including the Fiberglas wrap, was about an inch and a half.  The portion of the tube where the leak occurred was completely rotten with corrosion - you could almost break it apart with your fingers.  But because it was wrapped in Fiberglas, the corrosion couldn't be seen while it was happening!  At its upper end, the aluminum tube barely met the under-side of the cockpit sole where the Fiberglas wrap was faired (not very neatly) to the sole/bulkhead junction.  Based on the otherwise sound construction of the boat, this apparently sloppy workmanship indicates that this might have been a retro-fit.  If so, then a warning to others may not be necessary.

Query:  If this is the original design/construction, does the same method apply to the two cockpit drains?  Nothing indicates that it doesn't and if it does, should some thought be given to preventive action in this area as well?

The old tube was removed and the holes in the hull and cockpit sole were cleaned up and enlarged to provide a good, solid foundation to lay on West System epoxy, thickened with high density micro-balloons in accordance with the package instructions.  In the case of the cockpit sole, the old hole was completely filled in and a new, half inch hole was drilled to accommodate the upper end of the stainless steel tube supplied by Eric Spencer.  The hole in the hull was enlarged to an oval shape approximately 1" X 2" and under-cut to give it an hourglass profile when viewed in cross section.

The lower end of the new tube had a welded rectangular mounting plate approximately 2" X 4", with four counter-sunk holes for mounting screws in each corner.  A stainless sheave was attached below.  The plate was too wide to fit in the one inch keel slot, so about 1/2" was trimmed from each side, leaving the plate roughly 1" X 4" and cutting off the original mounting holes.  Two new holes were then drilled through the plate and the hull for quarter-inch mounting bolts.  After masking the tube with waxed paper, the assembly was inserted (up through the keel slot), the bolts installed with the nuts hand tightened, and the space between the hull and the tube filled with thickened epoxy.

When the epoxy had cured, the bolts were removed and the tube and waxed paper slipped out without any problems.  It was then a simple matter to re-install the unit, bedding it with 3M's 4200 adhesive/sealant and bolting it in place.  By the way, the bolts were inserted from the bottom, up through the keel slot by taping the heads to a long dowel.  Once each nut was started, a pair of vice-grip pliers was used to hold the exposed end of the bolt while the nut was tightened.  5200 was also used to bed the upper end of the tube into the sole, since its threaded end didn't protrude into the cockpit.  It's possible that when originally conceived, the plate/sheave assembly was intended to go on the inside of the hull instead of the outside and by installing it on the outside, a half inch or so was lost.

As far as the center-board itself is concerned, as usual, when it was removed it was found to be fouled with all kinds of corrosion, algae, barnacles and assorted crud.  An aluminum board just can't co-exist in harmony with a ferrous keel in a salt water environment.  Whatever copper based anti-fouling paint is used further compounds the electrolytic problems and never seems to stick to the board for any length of time.  Eventually the owner will have to bite the bullet and replace the unit with something else - maybe a quarter or half inch stainless steel plate (at $200 to $400).  This time, the board was sand-blasted and after priming with a now illegal out-drive primer, two coats of Gluvit were laid on and the lead weights were replaced with a pair of hefty zincs.  The big zincs keep the board from fully retracting, thus lessening the tendency to stick and adding a five or six inch margin of protection for the new, deeper rudder.  Finally, the entire board, keel slot, keel and hull were slathered with the anti-fouling wax described in an earlier News­letter.  So far, she's been in the water for eight months and the board still works fine.  She'll be hauled in the Spring and then we'll know for sure how well things worked.

While Sistiana was on the beach, a Signet SL 80 Ultra Pak (knot meter, log, depth & temperature) was installed.  However, since you've been bored enough for now, you'll have to wait for another time to find out about the fool who cut two new holes below the water-line of a boat that had already sunk once.


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Several issues ago, concerns were raised about all the "negative" publicity the Tanzer received in the Newsletter because of the frequency of "how to fix-it" and "how to improve it" articles.  It was suggested the Newsletter try to include more articles extolling the virtues of the Tanzer 22.  In that vein I am sending the following story as testament to the Tanzer's seaworthiness.

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Fair Haven Bay, NY (Little Sodus Bay on the charts) is a popular weekend spot for sailors on the southeast shore of Lake Ontario.  About 14 miles east of Oswego, it is an easy afternoon sail in either direction.  Anxious to get some early cruising in before the racing season got into full swing, three boats sailed to Fair Haven one Saturday in June to spend the night.  As is our cruising custom, we had a night of tale swapping and the following morning an all-you-can-eat breakfast.  During the night a weak cold front had passed through with fresh winds (18-20 kts)from the northwest.

Listening frequently and carefully to the NOAA weather broadcasts, we were assured that the winds would only be gusting to 25 kts, with three to five foot seas.  Since Oswego is basically ENE of Fair Haven, we would have a sleigh ride back, a little uncomfortable perhaps, but an easy and fast broad reach home under a reefed mainsail.

Our first clue to the inaccuracy of the NOAA forecast (beyond our experience) should have been the six to eight foot chop in the channel.  Nonetheless, we pressed on.  Shortly, my crew (wife) was overcome by the most violent seasickness I have ever witnessed.  Faced with the decision of beating three or four miles back to Fair Haven through six foot seas essentially single-handed or continuing on to Oswego, I chose the latter.  As sailors are wont to do, I kept trying to sail faster by surfing.  I was quite elated when I finally pegged the knot meter at 10 knots.  Having only done this on rare occasions I was duly impressed.  By now we were half way home.  The seas appeared to be building and the wind freshening, but the nearest land upwind was Toronto and the forecast was for gusts only to 25 knots.  With a 120 mile fetch the seas and wind were bound to be a little higher than forecast, I thought.  Rounding Ford Shoals, about four and a quarter miles from Oswego, I began to realize how wrong the weather forecast was.  The seas were running a good 10 feet and higher.  At the time I had no idea how strong the winds were, but pegging the knot meter was a regular occurrence with each passing wave.  In fact, on one occasion, the boat was surfing so fast the knot meter impeller came out of the water.

As much as I would have liked otherwise, my choices were limited.  I could send my seasick wife forward to reef, or steer while I reefed the main.  Drop the sail and run under bare poles or continue on overpowered.  Running under bare poles was not an option.  I was less than two miles offshore and could not run the risk of running ashore.  My wife was totally incapacitated by her seasickness, to send her forward or allow her to steer was inviting a tragic accident.

Entering Oswego Harbor, after an accidental (but necessary) jibe, we were sailing at six plus knots on a beam reach with mainsail luffing!  We covered the last four miles in less than 30 minutes, an average speed in excess of 10 knots.  The next day the local weather observer reported winds of 45 MPH with gusts to 57 and that was three miles inland!  So much for the NOAA weather forecast.

The only damage to the boat are the indentations from my fingers on the tiller and more frequent complaints from crew about mainsail shape.  The scariest part of the whole trip was docking the boat downwind in a gale.  My nerves, however, were quickly repaired by a cold Labatt’s at the dock.  Even when screaming down the front of the 10+ waves, I always felt In control.  The helm was light and responsive (I have the new rudder). I don't recommend this type of sailing on a regular basis - once in a lifetime is enough - but it is comforting to know the Tanzer 22 can handle whatever the weather can throw at it.  There are precious few 22s that can.


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This was the year I decided to paint the hull of my Tanzer 22.  After reading several ads on different kinds of paint, I decided to use Interthane Plus, an epoxy paint from Interlux.  Before I started, I carefully viewed their video tape many times and took notes to make sure of the procedure.

I chose the roller coat method as it seemed to be the simpler method and since I was familiar with roller and brush painting I thought I could handle the job myself.  So much for that thought!!

The fault with the roller method of applying epoxy paint was with the rollers.  They disintegrated in a matter of minutes leaving a trail of lint that quickly hardened into a rough surface.  Naturally, because the rollers had been recommended and sent and I knew I had to sand between coats, I carried on painting the whole hull.

Unfortunately, no matter what is said or recommended by the industry, the rollers were just NO GOOD.


I even tried to buy a better quality roller and phoned shops in Calgary, Toronto, Saskatoon and Winnipeg.  A sales rep at Interlux assured me rollers were readily available - NOT SO - no one had them.

After an extra three day sanding session, in which I had to call in the help of two others, and buying more paint to replace lint loaded coat we had to sand off, I decided to have the paint applied with a spray gun.  After all that grief I did end up with a hard, smooth professional finish.

When masking to cover up parts not be sprayed, use roll (wrapping) paper next to the painted surfaces and not plastic sheeting.  The reason - the first coat of dry paint which has stuck to the plastic can be blown off by the air force of the spray gun and will settle onto the surface of the new wet second coat.  I did use plastic sheeting to cover the top sides because the paint will drift and settle everywhere.

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One of the most popular retrofits is to install lifelines.  So, your editor will try to cover this subject as best he can.  All of what follows relates to the lifeline developed and installed by the Tanzer plants.


Because of the configuration of the deck of the Tanzer 22, there are no side decks.  Thus the lifelines are different from those installed on a yacht with side decks.  The complete system is illustrated in the drawing.

The system as a whole consists of three separate kits as follows:

1. Cabin Top Lifelines: - these connect to the bow pulpit then run aft through a single vertical stanchion and terminate with the curved handrails at the aft end of the cabin top.

2. Stern Rail: - this is installed as shown.

3. Cockpit Lifelines: - these fasten to the forward end of the stern rail and run forward to the curved handrails.  Pelican hooks at the forward ends allow quick release for getting on or off the boat.

Owners should note - if the cabin top lifelines are not already fitted, it is just about impossible to install the cockpit lifelines in a satisfactory manner.  Since some crew members tend to feel insecure when working on the exposed cabin top and foredeck, it is sensible to install the cabin top lifelines first and the stern rail with cockpit lifelines later.

The stern rail, stanchions and curved handrails are all 7/8 inch diameter, stainless steel tubing.  The lifelines are white, vinyl covered, 1/8 inch diameter stainless steel wire with the appropriate terminal fittings and including turnbuckles and pelican hooks.  Cable anchors for the bow pulpit and curved handrails are supplied so that the cabin top lifelines and cock­pit lifelines can be secured to the bow pulpit and curved hand­rails.

Before getting into installation details, it should be noted that with hull (or sail) number 1386, Tanzer changed the method of installing the headliner which affects the way in which lifeline and other through deck fastenings are handled.  Prior to #1386, the headliner was bonded directly to the underside of the reinforced deck.  With this system, the ends of the lifeline bolts are visible in the main and fore cabin and are finished with cap nuts.

With #1386, the bonding of the headliner to the deck was changed so as to create an air space of about 3/16" between the headliner and the deck structure.  This system allows the lifeline and other through deck fastenings to be hidden by a white plastic headliner plug.  This involves drilling a separate hole in the headliner after the holes for the lifeline bolts have been drilled.  The plastic plugs are 23mm diameter and a 15/16" hole saw is about right.

In either case, the bolts supplied with the above kits will be longer than required in order to facilitate shortening them.  The technique is to drill the bolt holes, caulk the holes (butyl or polysulphide caulking) and thoroughly tighten a flat nut over a flat washer.  Then, grip the excess length of the bolt with a large pair of Vice-Grips.  Wiggle the Vice-Grips back and forth a few times until the bolt breaks.  If your sail number is #1385 or earlier, you then carefully remove the flat nut, which will re-thread the bolt and substitute a cap nut.  If your sail number is #1386 or later, leave the washer and nut in place and cover it by inserting a white plastic headliner plug in the 15/16" hole which, if you have been paying attention, you should have drilled in the headliner earlier.



1. Vertical Stanchion base for Sternrail - install on inside face of aft cockpit coaming approx. 17 1/2" each side of C/L - may require plywood backing plate.

2.Angled Stanchion base for Sternrail - install on upper face of cockpit coaming approx. 30" forward of transom corner.

3.Stanchion Base for Curved Handrail - install just aft of aft end of handrail.

4.Stanchion Base for Vertical Stanchion - install close to inside face of handrail.

5.Stanchion Base for Vertical Stanchion -install between inside face of toenail and outside edge of non-skid pattern.

6.Cable Anchor - slides onto Bow Pulpit Rail and Curved Handrail.


It is not necessary to shorten the bolts of the stern rail stanchion bases as they are not visible.

The white, vinyl covered lifeline wire for both the cabin top and cockpit lifelines will have the appropriate terminal fittings swaged in place on one end, but the other end will not.  These lifeline wires will have to be measured and cut to the correct length in-situ and the terminal fitting swaged on.  This will be a nico-press swage which entails squeezing a small copper sleeve on the bare end of the wire.  Ideally, you should use a nico-press swaging tool which many yacht clubs and marinas will lease or lend you. In Canada, MMOS sells an item called "Swage­it" (#4248-2) which will do the job.

The deck of your Tanzer 22 is a laminate, or sandwich, of Fiberglas with a 5/16" core of plywood.  Thus it is very strong and it is not necessary to use backing plates under the stanchion bases except possibly behind the vertical face of the aft cockpit coaming which is the location of the bases for the two vertical stanchions of the stern rail.  This area should have been reinforced by Tanzer during construction, but check.  If not, bond a piece of 5/16" plywood to the back side of the coaming.

All of the kits described may be bought from Yachting Services whose ad appears elsewhere.  You should contact Eric Spencer for the current prices.  The kits supplied by Yachting Services include all the stainless steel fastenings and the white plastic head liner plugs when required.  You will have to give him your hull or sail number when ordering so that he can send the proper fastenings.

The diagram accompanying this article shows the approximate location of all the stanchion bases.  But before you drill holes in your precious boat, it is a good idea to place the various stanchions and their bases in place to see how they will fit.  In Particular, bases #5.  If mounted too far outboard, the bolts will come through the headliner on the curved face rather than the flat.


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Jib furling systems have become very popular recently.  There are several well engineered systems on the market today and they have become an essential piece of equipment for sailors throughout the world.  Offshore cruisers and family sailors have realized the features of the roller reefing systems as being a convenience to family sailing and a valuable safety system to reduce sails quickly when conditions demand such action.

As the Tanzer 22 Class Rules now permit the use of roller furling headsails on the Tanzer 22, many owners are buying systems for their shrine.  However, those who are deciding which system to buy are faced with some major problems as to how to select the proper system.

There are dozens of furling systems on the market for boats the size of the Tanzer 22.  They range in price from $300 to $1800.

I have had a furling system on board my Tanzer 22 for several years now and have spoken to many owners who ask how I like the furling system on my Tanzer.  Personally, I am very happy with my system and probably won't ever sail without one again.  I have found great comfort in the fact that when I am out sailing alone on Lake Ontario and the wind picks up, that I can reduce sail in seconds - safely.  When the winds are very strong I prefer to just sail with the Genoa and leave the mainsail down; I have found the Tanzer to be just as fast and manageable, but now I can reduce sail quickly from the cockpit.


However, many hate their furling system with a passion and would like to give it a proper seaman's burial, some even do.  Usually the reason why this occurs is simple; they have the wrong type of system for their boat and the type of sailing they do.  Furling systems have come a long way from the systems of the past that were unreliable.  The furling systems of today are very refined and reliable and for the most part, provide years of service.  But, how do you select the proper system for your Tanzer 22?  With so many systems on the market, choosing the correct system can be a nightmare.


The Tanzer 22 is a powerful boat as far as 22 footers are concerned.  A full #1 Genoa has an area of over 200 square feet and in winds over 30 knots, the loads are high.  Almost any system will work in light winds on your boat, however, it is what the system does when the winds pick up over 20 knots that counts.  Those of you who are like me and like to push your Tanzer to the limit will understand how much fun heavy weather sailing is, but an inadequate furling system will make quick work of your fun sail when it fails.  The moral of this story, buy a strong powerful unit that will last and give you years of service and make sailing more fun.

Most manufacturers make several sizes of their furling system, based on the diameter and length of your forestay.  How­ever, most systems also have a recommended size range of boat.  Try to select a system for boats 20 -30 feet in length.  Avoid a system designed for yachts up to 22 feet as they will be undersized.

The Tanzer 22 has a forestay that is about 5mm in diameter and 28.5 feet long.  Some furling systems are designed to re­place either your turnbuckle or forestay or even both, while some systems do not require any adaptation to your stay and fit over your turnbuckle.  The systems that replace your turnbuckle or head stay are usually complicated to install and create difficulties in removing the system for winter, although they work just as well as over-the-turnbuckle systems.  A roller furling system that fits over your existing turnbuckle is easiest to install and adds an extra measure of strength to your rig.


A debate has raged for years as to whether or not a furling system should have ball bearings.  It is now commonly understood that bearings work best and should be used on any furling system.  Those few that do not use bearings will require much torque to furl the sail and are prone to seize under high loads.  A system should have as many bearings as possible.  Some of the older systems require lubrication of the bearings.  Try to avoid these as they need service every few years and grease is nasty stuff to get off your sails.  The modern systems use plastic bearings made of complex resins and composites (Delrin, Duratron, Torolon etc.), they work very well.  However, when used in the furling drum and subject to high loads, they have a tendency to deform over the years.  Stainless (AISI 316) bearings that do not require lubrication and run in open races are the newest development.  They will last the longest under vicious use but are considerably more expensive to form as they must be machined in a very precise manner.

Another very important consideration in the selection of a furling system is whether the drum has a shield or not.  A shield wraps around the drum so that the furling line can not be seen and although they do add cosmetic appeal to the system, should a furling line override occur, they make it very difficult to obtain access to the line.  It is important that if a system has a shield that you remove it permanently or buy a system without one.  Another thing to look at is the construction of the drum.  You will see that they come in plastic and aluminum.  A word of advice - stay away from the plastic drums, they just don't last.

Aluminum is by far the best and over 90% of the systems on the market use aluminum.  However, check to see if it is a casting or if it has been machined out of solid aluminum, the latter having a much nicer finish.

Almost all systems on the market today use foils that ride over your stay, called head foils.  They come in a variety of profiles; the wing shape, which has become very popular today, and the circular profile.  While the wing profile is more aerodynamic than the circular profile, it lacks the strength of a round section and is subject to bending and even kinking when taking the mast down.  The circular profile, while not in fashion, has immense resistance to deformation and generally will provide a smoother furling of the sail.

The halyard swivel is another very important feature of any furling system.  It provides the ability for the sail to furl while the halyard remains in position, that is, not wrapping around the forestay as you furl.  The more bearings the better, as the swivel is very important.

For those who are racer/cruisers there are a number of features available on some systems to allow you to race competit­ively.  A splitting drum allows for it's removal so that all you are left with is the head foil, as on a racing yacht.  Some systems have double luff grooves for fast sail changes.  However, if you do not race, don't be talked into buying these features by a sharp salesman, as you'll just be spending extra money for something you'll never use.

The effectiveness of the tack swivel has come under much debate lately.  The tack swivel is designed to allow the tack of the Genoa to lag behind one or two turns, thus furling the center of the sail first, reducing draft.  Although the tack swivel may not be as effective as some claim, it is better than a system without a tack swivel.  However, a properly cut sail is the best way to ensure proper sail shape when reefed.

Concerning sails, once you have bought your furling system, you will require some sail changes.  The sail will need luff tape sewn to the luff to allow the sail to be fed into the furling systems head foil.  Most sail makers charge $3 - $5 a foot of sail that is altered.  UV tape is sewn on the leech of the sail to prevent damage from the sun.  While some sail makers recommend the tape should be sewn on immediately, I have it on good authority from a very respected sail maker that one is best to wait one or two years to allow a line to occur on the sail from the sun's bleaching.  This will tell the sail maker exactly where to place the tape and allow them to use as little as is needed, because the last thing anyone wants is a lot of heavy tape on a sail.  I recommend the use of your 150% Genoa on the furling system for most occasions.

A word about cost. Most good quality furling systems will cost between $800 and $1300 for a Tanzer 22 (Canadian).  Although you can buy cheaper systems, I have not seen one that will work well and last a long time.  Sail alterations will cost about $150 for one sail with luff tape only.  A complete system will cost anywhere from $1000 to $1500.