No. 60 - December 1984


George Schorn (#1694) Hatfield, PA.


I have owned my boat since June 1979 and love it. I navigate a rough bay to ocean inlet and find the boat very seaworthy. I have two problems however that you maybe can help me with?


After my boat sits all winter, my centerboard keel gets stuck in Up-position. This past spring it took me hours to scrape the keel and get rid of the oxidized steel around the keel. Then it still stuck: Also, to help free the keel I dug the putty from around pivot pin and tried to drive the pin out. I noticed:

(a) Pin would not move - seemed as if it were cast into the keel. (b) When keel moved pin had a lot of play. Is this normal? I also had trouble getting my boat balanced and in tune. My backstay is turned tight and still I have weather-helm. Do you have any suggestions?

(Tightening the back stay will increase the weather-helm - Ed)



Barbara, our Class Secretary, has asked me to answer your letter about sticking centerboards. But first, a couple of questions. Where do you sail? Salt or fresh water? And, even more important, what type of anti-fouling paint do you use?


If you have been using an anti-fouling paint containing copper, as many do, then you run the risk of creating a galvanic action between the iron keel and centerboard, and the copper. This results in getting twice as much rust than if you had not used any paint at all. Even in fresh water, but almost a disaster in salt. It is imperative one uses a barrier coat (such as Inter­national's Vitar Aluminum) between the iron and the paint. And, to be on the safe side, then use a paint using TBTF rather than copper.


The centerboard pin should be able to be driven out, but possibly by now rust has "welded" it into place. And yes, there is a fair bit of play between the pin and the centerboard. So it won't stick!! In any case, we haven't had too many complaints about the iron CB sticking - the earlier aluminum one yes, but not since the factory switched to iron. If none of the above suggestions seem to help, write again with more details, and I'll try to solve the problem.



Ben Brewster (#693)


The drawings of R. Poitras for side pockets (Newsletter Compendium, Vol. 1, page 112, or Newsletter #18, Sept. 1975; and see picture John Charters, page 5, Newsletter #40, June 1980), gave me the idea (and the courage to try it) of using this otherwise wasted space for enclosed shelf storage on each side.


I made two square openings each side 10-1/8" x 5-5/8" and installed a shelf of 1/2" marine ply @ .5" below the bottom lip of the squares with bulkheads at each end. Covers of 3/4" teak which slip in and drop in place finished it off. The shelf is screwed to a wooden rail fastened through the sides of the liner just above the bunk level and the fastenings are therefore hidden by the bunk cushion when it is in place. The most difficult part was shaping the shelves and bulk­heads to the hull contour. I hope that the enclosed drawings will save that trouble for anyone else who wishes to try it. It really allows us to get a lot of otherwise loose gear out of the way, but readily accessible through the roomy openings when needed.


TOOLS: Screwdriver, drill, router with edge guide, 1/4" and 1/2" router bits, Sabre saw.


MATERIALS: Covers: 4 Pcs. 3/4" teak 6.5 xl1"

Shelves & Bulkheads: .5" marine ply, 13 x 58"

Shelf Rails: 2 Pcs. 3/4" pine, 1" x 42"

Fasteners: 8 #6 fh screws, 7/8"

          26 #8 fh screws, 1"

          14 #8 oh screws, 1-1/4"

          14 #8 countersink washers


STEP 1 - Mark and cut openings 5-5/8" x 10-1/8" on the starboard side. Top lip of openings 3.5" below side shelf, forward edge of forward openings 4.5" behind cooler compartment, leave 7" between the two openings (Fig.3).


STEP 2 - Mark and cut the two port side openings opposite the starboard openings.


STEP 3 - Drill holes for #8 screws every 6" on line 2" above bunk level, beginning 1.5" aft of cooler compartment (Fig.3).

STEP 4 - Position shelf rail of 1" x 42" x 3/4" pine at 2" below bottom lip of square openings. Screw in place through drilled holes with 118 oval head screws using countersink washers (Fig.3).

STEP 5 - Cut shelves from .5" ply, using flush cut for straight edge and ends, 40 degree bevel cut for contoured edge. Cut shelf end pieces from .5" ply (Fig.4). Rabbit each shelf end .5". Screw end pieces in rabbit at each shelf end (Fig.5).


STEP 6 - Drill and countersink holes for #8 screws along straight edge of shelf every 6" or so. Insert shelf with end pieces attached through opening and it should fall into place supported by the shelf rail and the hull contour. Fasten shelf to rail through pre-drilled holes with #8 flat head wood screws, 1" long.


STEP 7 - Cut four bulkheads (Fig.4) using flush cut for all edges except the contoured edge of each forward bulkhead. For those edges use 40" bevel cut. Drill and countersink three holes at the bottom of the bulkheads for attaching them to shelf ends with #8 screws.


STEP 8 - Insert bulkheads through openings and position as appropriate against shelf end pieces. They should rest easily in place supported by the shelf, shelf ends, the side line and the hull contour. Fasten them in place to the shelf ends with #8 flat head wood screws, 1" long (Fig.6).


STEP 9 - Take 3/4" teak plank, 6.5" x 45",rout the center of each edge with 1/4" bit, 1/2" deep on one edge, 1" deep on the other. Rout back the inside lip of each edge 1/4" (Fig.2).


STEP 10 - Cut routed plank into four 11" lengths. Rout inside ends in 1/2", 1/2" deep. Round outside lip and corners (Fig.2).


STEP 11 - Drill 1" hole each cover centered 2" below top edge, and round hole edges. Insert covers in openings and drop in place (Fig.2).


I sure had fun planning and executing this "improvement", and love the result. Perhaps this will help someone else do the same.






R. Oudshoorn (#1258)


One of the things that most of us should know is that the T-22 can and will heave­-to very nicely with almost any sail combination at all. I have hove-to with a 150% genny, working jib, a 40 sq.ft. storm jib, with full main, first reef and a second deep reef in winds up to 30 mph.


So, you ask, why heave-to? Mainly because it works and saves a lot of wear and tear on both the sails and the crew. It is far safer to walk around on deck as the boat lies remarkably stable and quiet. I have hove-to in order to get a bucket of water to cool the decks, talk a few minutes with a sailor at anchor, reef the main sail (I use jiffy reefing, one for trimming and a deep one for nasty weather), shake a reef, or have a sandwich, without the sails flogging themselves to death during any of that.


To heave-to: sail a close reach on a port tack, tack the boat to a starboard tack leaving the jib trimmed to starboard. Allow the boom to swing back to the port side of the boat (you are now the privileged vessel); tie the helm as hard as possible to the port mooring cleat. The jib will back on the starboard side and the boat will slowly drift downwind with the mainsail to port, drifting at one knot or so across the wind. To adjust the drift rate, trim the main sail but don't allow the sail to flog or the boat to tack back to port. To sail off; release the rudder and jib, winch jib to port and off you go.


When I am ready to return to my dock I usually take in only the jib, tie it down and run up a narrow river using just the main sail. Since I sail alone often the trick is to lower the jib without losing footing and having to walk to shore. This is the way it's done. First I sail as close to the winds as possible, then I release the jib so it flogs close to the boat (it's easier to bring it in the boat that way). Tie down the helm almost centered, or somewhat windward, and release the main a tad. At this point the boat will move close to the wind with little headway and virtually no heeling. Release the jib halyard, pull the jib down and snub it to the pulpit using the sheets, or stops. If desired, you can then also bring in the main sail or walk back to cockpit and sail off into the sunset; no fuss, no muss. It takes almost longer to explain than to do.


Now this brings up the most important gimmick. The automatic helmsman! To make your own: take a piece of 1/4" Dacron line approximately 6 feet long and 2 pieces of 1/4" shock cord approximately 3 feet long. Make a loop at each end of the Dacron line. Tie a piece of shock cord through each loop in the Dacron line. Adjust the shock cords so the whole thing is long enough so it fits just snug with one turn of the line around the helm with the shock cords looped around the stern mooring cleats. In light winds one loop around the helm should be enough to keep the helm where you want it. If the wind picks up two loops around the helm works great. As long as the wind is forward of the beam the boat will sail almost better than you can reasonably expect. Many times I stood in the companion-way having a smoke or a can of soda while ol' Tuska just charges along following the wind better than I ever could. The shock cords allow you to make minor adjustments, if needed at all.


It also can be used when motoring in tight quarters; steer using the outboard, trim or assist with rudder, let go and the rudder stays put. For docking it can't be beaten; almost as good as crew, and a lot cheaper than the Tillerman. A clove hitch will keep the helm locked in place when docked or at anchor (or to port when heaving-to).


Since Tuska has a fin keel those who have a swing keel may have to experiment to find the best combination of sail and rudder settings. Spend time in fair weather to practice, its well worth the effort. Much better to find how these things work without having to change from a 150% genny to a storm jib and set a deep reef in a 30 knot breeze while you're out there by yourself.


As a final comment, with winds gusting to 30 mph plus a 40 sq. ft. storm jib and deep reefed main (about 65 sq.ft.) Tuska was a pussy-cat; no weather helm to speak of, enough drive to get the windows wet - a real pleasure! Other sailors struggled along using just a flogging main sail or used power to run for shelter.



Dave Perry


In watching thousands of different starts, I've seen too many people hang back or put themselves in dangerous positions too often. Becoming a good starter obviously comes from experience, but it's the experience of getting in there, mixing it up and fighting for a front row seat that makes people better. This chapter is the first of a three-chapter look at starting.


There are two primary reasons why people hang back. First, they are unsure of the racing rules. This causes them to be overcautious and to stay away from the other boats as they don't want to mess up their fellow sailors' starts. There are two excellent and quick ways to overcome this lack of knowledge. First, read, in particular, rules 35, 36, 37, 40 and 42.4. Preferably read them with a friend who really understands the rules. Supplement your reading with any number of good texts written on the rules.


Then enter a race as crew for someone who fully understands the rules. Have them point out rule situations as they occur, discussing the different rights and obligations as they change. Ask questions and get together after the race to refresh your memory. You'll find that the rules for any given situation are very understandable; it's the situations themselves that change rapidly. In a short time you'll be familiar with most of the situations as they happen and be able to apply the rules immediately.


The second reason why people hang back is the sense that their reflexes aren't fast enough to handle the close-quarters action. But most of us have driven down the highway at 60 mph (some of us may even have gone a touch faster). We've even handled lane changes and crowded stretches. What's more, we've done it in bad weather and at night, while listening to music, reading signs, and doing all sorts of other distracting things at the same time. In other words, your body is well prepared to handle events at 60 mph. Now, in an average fifteen-foot sailboat,

60 mph is about six boat-lengths per second, and unless you have a very quick boat, you won't ever have to deal with that kind of speed. In fact, your fifteen-foot boat is doing only about one boat length every four seconds. So we all have the reflexes to get in there and mix it up.


Let's then look at the dynamics of starting at the weather end. When the line is square and no side of the course seems heavily favored, the fleet will spread itself out down the line. But in college racing, I started at the weather end more than 70 percent of the time. I prefer the weather end for several reasons. First, it is more forgiving. If I get a bad start I can tack and get into clean air and water sooner. Second, I can come in a little late with good speed, and tack immediately onto port. Even if I wind up directly astern of the first couple of guys onto port, I can drive off to leeward and quickly free my air. Third, it's extremely easy to judge exactly where the line is, as opposed to when I'm at the middle or even the leeward end. This assures that I'll be right on the line with full speed at the gun. Also I can hear clearly if my number is recalled, whereas the farther down the line you get, the harder it is to hear. I'm right there at an end if I'm over at the one-minute rule, and if I owe a 720 for a pre-start foul, I can tack immediately onto port after the start, do my circles, and still wind up in relatively good shape.



The best approach to the weather end is from well outside the line. I call this approach "lurking in the shadows". Simply position yourself on starboard tack, five boat lengths to leeward of the extension of the line and with about one minute of full speed sailing required to reach the weather end (diagram). The key to starting at the weather end is knowing exactly where the layline is. The layline is the line on which a close-hauled boat would sail and just miss hitting the committee boat. Of course, even for the same class, the layline changes with different velocities of breeze, different boat speeds and different sea conditions and current, so make several runs before the start to determine exactly where it is.


Once you are set up in position, which can be anywhere from two to one and a half minutes to go, just watch as the others set up for their starts. If at about one and a half minutes to go most of the fleet is on starboard and to leeward of the weather end layline, this immediately indicates that a) there will be little, if any, congestion at the weather end; and b) it may be heavily favored to start near the other end or go to the left immediately. From your vantage point, look down the line to see where the other good sailors are starting.


If you decide to stick with your strategy of starting at the weather end, simply get your boat wound up and plan to be close reaching, at full speed, past the stern of the committee boat with about two seconds to go. If you see one or two boats squeezing up to shut the door, remember that under rule 42.4 they can't sail above close-hauled after the gun to shut you out. So just plan to arrive a few seconds late, and with your full speed on, you'll either, sail right over them, or at least be able to tack away into free air. This is a particularly good start for classes which accelerate slowly, such as one-design keel boats in light air, and can be used very effectively, especially when the line favors the leeward end by as much as five degrees.


Now, if someone tries to challenge you for your weather end start, here's what to do. It all revolves around the layline to the weather starting mark. You're set up ready to come reaching in for the perfect start and another boat sets itself up in front of you. If you go to windward of them, they'll hold you up under rules 37.1 and 42.4 and force you on the wrong side of the starting mark. But what would happen if you started to sail to leeward of the boat? If they let you go through them, you will come up under them, become the leeward boat, and force them above the weather end. So naturally they will bear off so as not to let you get to lee­ward of them. If they don't simply sail behind them, give them room and opportunity under rule 37.3 to keep clear, and then luff them above the mark. If they do bear off to defend against your intrusion on their leeward side, keep making it seem as if you are going to leeward of them, until they have sailed down past the layline to the mark (diagram). Once they're past the layline they can no longer physically shut you out. Then you can harden up to close-hauled on the layline and take the start. When tailing, be extremely careful not to overlap them to leeward unless you are 100 percent sure you can break through their bad air. If not, slow your boat down and stay on their transom. The key here is the layline, and you want to set yourself up so that, when you finally do get to the layline, you can head up to close-hauled and start without slowing down. In this way, anyone trying to duck your stern will not have enough time to break through your lee and will wind up in your bad air.




1) A challenges B for the weather end start.

2) B bears off, as if to sail to leeward of A.

3) B waits until A has sailed beyond the layline to the weather end, then heads up to close-hauled and takes the start.



Sometimes you'll be lurking in the shadows, watching the fleet set up, and you'll notice that there's going to be a huge jam at the weather end. Remember a couple of things. First of all, packs of boats are moving slower and hence drifting downwind faster than single boats. Also, packs are very ingrown; sailors in packs are generally concerned only with each other. Finally, to leeward of most packs there's a rather large hole. So you can approach packs in a couple of different ways.


Watch the drift of the pack. Often the whole pack will be drifting downwind, especially if there's a lot of breeze or current, opening up a nice hole at the weather end. This will be magnified by the fact that the weather boats will be going very slowly and must fall off or go closehau1ed at the gun. Even if you come swooping in five seconds late, you'll have speed and be able to prevent the weather most boat from tacking onto port before you do, under rules 36 and 41. But if it looks like a total jam, just reach in early and start to leeward of the pack. You really can't go wrong coming in from behind with speed, as there's usually a hole for you to get through. (For this it's definitely to your advantage to know and understand USYRU Appeal 192). And if from your vantage point you see that the front row seats are filling up really quickly and there probably won't be any holes at the start, get on your horse early, get in there, and reserve a place for yourself.


The advantage of lurking in the shadow is that you let the other people set up first while keeping your options open to the very end. Therefore, the odds for getting a good start at the weather end are good, and it definitely helps avoid the aggravation and misery of getting a bad start farther down the line. Remember also that a five-degree leeward end favor (which a lot of committees do as standard practice) on a 500-foot line (average length for twenty-five to thirty 15-foot boats), gives the boat at the extreme leeward end with the perfect start only a four boatlength jump over the boat at the weather end, most of which is equalized immediately after the start by the fact that the leeward end starter is probably not at full speed at the start, nor can he tack immediately to take advantage of a wind shift.



Don Anderson and Gerry Bush


1. The set of instructions below are the ones we passed out to our fellow sailors during the Lake George cruise as mentioned in the last issue (#59). The victims, we mean contestants, were very gracious about us using them as guinea pigs in our experimenting with this new type of regatta - we even think they enjoyed it. We started it too late in the afternoon and tried only maneuvers I, II, III and VI.


The whole exercise is a very purposeful one in which we were seriously trying to inculcate a few skills which can not only be useful, but may in some future dire circumstance contribute to the saving of a life. We hope to include some useful information along this line in future Newsletter issues. The maneuvers were dreamed up over a considerable period of time, wrung through the mental wringer a bit, to simplify them, and the judging of them. Of course these are only a few of a great number of skill tests one might organize into such an event. And the ones we did use could be better organized, we're sure, if a lot of people gave it thought, and experimented. We will tell you how it came out on Lake George for a start.


2. Instructions. The usual sailing regatta is a contest where boat speed is the principal criterion. Of course, a great many contributing skills are involved. There are the choice of sails, their efficient trimming and handling, helmsmanship, knowledge of currents and weather behaviour, all of which have an effect on boat speed. This type of regatta attracts and holds 10-20% of the sailors in a typical yacht club. The remaining owners of sail boats use and enjoy their boats for Sunday sailing, and holiday sailing, where boat speed is not so important a factor, but where boat handling, maneuvering and safety are.


The "Seamanship Regatta" is a type of organized boat fun involving learning which may attract many of the cruise loving sailors, families and all, and at the same time inspire them to develop a skill with their boats which will contribute to enjoyment and safety as well. The seamanship regatta is outlined as a series of maneuvers where efficiency, knowledge of the capability of one's own boat, and teamwork of the crew contribute to the performance.



I. On-shore Line Heave

A 50 ft. heaving line with a life ring or a monkey's fist knot on the end is a required item on a T-22. A target - roughly the replica of a person floating in the water with arms outstretched is placed at a certain distance. Each crew member will be allowed three heaves with his boat's heaving line and his accuracy on the target will be judged on a shore based event - for practice for a later one on the water.


II. Knots

Each boat will be issued with a set of pcs. of Dacron line as follows:

2 Pcs. 4 ft. x 3/8"

1 Pc. 5 ft. x 3/16"

2 ft. whipping cord

1 Identifying tag

Each boat's crew is required to use the pieces given to

(a) Whip the two ends of one of the lengths of 3/8" line,

(b) Attach the identifying tag to which you have added your name and sail number,

(c) Create as many knots as you can between the time of issue and the time when you pass your result back. Knots are due back after the last event. RC will hoist a white flag to signal 10 minutes before time limit is over.


A horn blast from the committee boat will signal time to embark and follow committee boat to the starting area. All maneuvers will be done under sail power only.


III. Person Overboard

The person to fall overboard will wear a life jacket. He should be chosen as the middle-weight person of a crew of three. He has a part to play as it is supposed he has a broken left leg which prevents him from swimming and climbing a ladder unaided. (It could be worse - he could be unconscious!) Boat must be moving at speed when he falls off so that he is left clearly behind. Crew should follow all the prescribed procedures for "man overboard" such as shouting "man overboard", keeping him in sight, throwing over PFD's as may be needed - and recovering person as soon as possible. Time overboard will be part of the merit mark.


One boat at a time will go through the person overboard maneuver, beginning with the lowest sail number and proceeding in ascending order, each boat starting the maneuver as soon as preceding boat has completely recovered.


IV. Narrow Channel Tacking

The narrow channel is formed by two pin buoys about four boat lengths apart at the windward end of the channel. The committee boat is placed upwind of these so that the line of her mast and the two buoys form a "channel" up which the contestant is required to sail. (Imagine that outside of each of these lines is a row of rocks and if you go beyond the line you pile up on them.)


On entering the channel, the small red buoy must be left to starboard, and you may exit to windward of either of the windward pair. You will be judged on number of tacks and/or number of "pile­ups" on rocks (any part of boat going beyond channel­ edge lines).


After leaving channel proceed directly to either of the following maneuvers, but do not cross between channel and committee boat if other boats are tacking in channel (see diagram).


V. Mooring

This maneuver tests the skipper's ability to approach a mooring. The boat should ideally be brought to a position with the prow exactly over the floating mooring buoy, remaining dead in the water while a crew member attaches the mooring line. In this case the mooring line is a short length of line with a card with the boat's name on it. It is to be tied to the buoy using a suitable knot, and left there. If there is a dinghy moored it should be kept from bumping your boat but not disturbed otherwise.


You are judged on the time it takes, the suitability of the knot and the skill exhibited in the maneuver.


VI. On Board Line Heave

The target is the same device as used in that ashore. It will be moored just off the committee boat windward of the channel with an auxiliary buoy out from the target. You are required to sail outside the auxiliary buoy and toss as you pass nearest. Each boat will pass three times and each member of the crew will take at least one turn heaving the line up to the total of three.


3. Comments on Results. Each crew returned the knots in abundance - even with pencils and twigs tied in for clove hitches. One should probably supply slightly longer pieces of lines and prohibit the additives.


In the line-heave the results illustrated how much skill is needed in heaving a line properly. The result in one instance when the line was heaved over the water pointed out that a heaving line should float - especially when one forgets to hang onto one end.


In the case of the person overboard maneuver, we varied it in that Gerry bravely offered to be the "man overboard" each time to help eliminate the variation in individual victim reactions. Gerry wore his waterproof wrist-watch and timed it himself. Poor Gerry's ribs suffered from being dragged over the gunwales cleats etc. so many times in succession! This factor should be part of the score.


Narrow-channel tacking IV and mooring V were not tried. The distance between the two white buoys in IV (four boat lengths?) would probably have to be varied with wind speed.


Let us know how it works out if you try something like this.

4. Equipment & Scoring


How to Score 

Correction of Score

1. Knots, lengths of lines etc. as

mentioned in I.


Count 2 for each different knot including whipping as one with a maximum allowable score of 25.


No correction

II. On Shore Line Heave, line heave target, see Note *. Each boat should have own50 ft. heaving line.


9 total tosses/boat Score: 10 for bull's eye(red), 8 for inner(green), 6 for magpie(yellow), 3 for outer(white), 0 for miss

Divide total by 9 for boat's score

III.Person Overboard, stop watch.


Take time of each boat. Calculate reciprocal of time for each.

Normalize the reciprocal of the best score to 25, and calculate each boat's score by proportioning its reciprocal to 25.

IV. Narrow Channel Tacking, 2 white and 1 red buoy with rodes & anchors borrowed from participating boats.


Count number of tacks, add 5 x number of line infringements (pile up on rocks)

Subtract from 15.

V.Mooring, mooring buoy with rodes and anchor as above, name tags.


Subjective judgment scoring 10 as perfect score with weightings as follows:

Use sum of the four elements:

4 time taken (t),

3 effectiveness of knot (k), 2 control of boat dead in water & ease of operation, 1 handling of dinghy (d).

10 perfect score


Use sum of the four elements

VI. On-Board Line Heave,as in II


Same as II.


No correction




Sum = score


Additional equipment: hand calculator, copies of instructions, scoring sheet or two.


* Line-heave target was built, as in drawing shown, to be a rough simulation of a person floating with arms outstretched, with distances approximately between the shoulders (bull's eye), the elbows(inner), forearms (magpie) within easy reach (outer) and beyond (a miss). In clean warm water a person could be the target with acceptable accuracy of judging probably. The target is set out - 27 feet from a line for maneuver II. It is attached by a three lines one forming a bridle to hold the target in orientation, and the marker buoy and a boat's anchor to the RC boat (or the wharf) for maneuver VI.