No. 55 - December 1983



John Charters


On earlier Tanzer 22 cockpit seats we used a rubber gasket made by General Motors. It is highly unlikely this is still available, however it might be worthwhile to snip off a small piece and try your local GM dealer. Assuming you are unable to find the exact replacement, here is what probably the next best choice is.


Earlier, General Motor cars used a rubber gasket to seal the trunk, when the lid was closed. You may have to do a little searching to find the type I am thinking of, but it is the sort that has a rubber "skirt" and fits over a vertical lip. I've seen different styles and sizes but you should be able to find one that fits.


All that remains is to remove the old gasket and install the new. I would use either silicone or butyl caulking as the "adhesive" to secure this new gasket. Presto. No more cockpit locker leaks.


Mind you, if you fill the leeward seat with water and let it sit there, some water eventually is going to find its way below. I don't care how well you seal the hatch.


Therefore, to complete the job, you may want to install drains leading from the low point of the hatch to the cockpit sole. On page 3 of Newsletter #30, Feb. 1978, you will find how to do it. If you don't have a copy, order our Newsletter Compendium #3, to be ready shortly.


Which leads me to my next observation. Tanzer sailors are an inventive lot. There is hardly an improvement or solution to a problem that has not been covered in one of our earlier Newsletters. Often, by three or four different owners, all with different solutions. I get calls daily from all over the continent from owners asking how to do something. And I bet 95% of the questions have already been answered. My message here - keep your old Newsletters. Keep up your Class member­ship. Tell other Tanzer owners to join. And order a copy of the new Compendium ­- the old one too if you don't have one.



John Charters


Should you install limber holes in T-22's?


Well, yes and no, it all depends. But first a definition. The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea states "Limbers, holes cut in the floor timbers of wooden ships on either side of the keelson to allow a free passage for the bilge water to run down to the pump well". We don't have a keelson, and our boat is not wooden, but the principle remains the same. Is it better to drain any bilge water to the lowest part of the boat, that is the bilge area under those cabin floorboards, or should it be contained in separate areas?


During construction, the forward and aft bulkheads and the hull liner are bonded to the hull with fibreglass tape and resin. This is done while the hull is still in the mold and plays a large part in the overall stiffness of the hull. This bonding creates, in effect, separate watertight compartments. Under the V berth, under the quarter berths and that little dinette seat, and the cockpit lockers are all separate watertight compartments. Or nearly so.


Occasionally a gremlin creeps in and you may find the odd place where the tape is not quite bonded, or just a little short of resin. Enough to allow a little trickle of water to escape. On older boats that have seen hard service, or any boat that is trailed a lot, it is not uncommon to see areas where the tape has come unstuck from the hull. But the principle remains a series of watertight compartments to provide a reserve of buoyancy should anyone compartment become flooded. A few years ago a local T22 skipper ran his boat full tilt into a sub­merged concrete ledge at the Ste Annes locks. Though badly damaged, he had no trouble motoring back to our yacht club, where we hauled his boat and arranged to have it taken back to the factory for repairs. Although he had a fair bit of water in that forward compartment, the rest of the boat remained dry, and most likely was in no immediate danger of sinking. Even a slow leak between the forward bulkhead and the main cabin would have given him many hours of reserve.


I rather like that feature of the Tanzer 22. Not that I expect to hit a cement ledge, or put a hole in the hull, but . . . Barbara and I do a lot of cruising, much of it on the Maine coast. And, although we are never that far off shore, on occasions we have been out of sight of land for an hour or so, and quite frankly, it is nice to know we probably have plenty of time to reach shore should the unthinkable happen.


So, I'll probably never drill holes in those watertight compartments. But for those who never sail far from home, use their boats mostly as day sailors, with only the occasional overnighter, maybe a limber hole or two might not be such a bad idea. Let's face it, most of the water that finds its way below, comes in from above. A leak in one of the ports, or the hull deck joint, or a through deck fitting (see Newsletter #44) are all potential trouble spots. It certainly is a nuisance having to mop up a cup full or two of water from these various compartments every time there has been a heavy rainstorm, or you've been out sailing rough weather. Under those conditions it would be easier if all one had to do was mop or pump out one spot. There is a small electric bilge pump made by Rule, I think, not much bigger than a pack of cigarettes that would probably fit under the floorboards. I installed one of these bilge pumps a few years ago, but in the cockpit locker. The switch I have would not fit under the floorboards, but you may be able to find one that does. Or, you could forego the automatic switch, and just connect to a manual one.


But if I were going to do this, I'd be inclined to drill pretty small holes, just enough for a trickle. Then I'd still have some reserve buoyancy for a while in any case. And, as much as I like the convenience of an electric bilge pump, I don't entirely trust the little devils. (Mine has stopped working, by the way!)

A better solution would be to mount a Whale 10, or something similar, in the cock­pit, with a Y valve; one hose going to the cockpit locker, the other to the bilge. A Whale 10 can pump 18 gallons a minute when fitted with a 1.5" hose. Guzzler make a similar pump, available with either a 1" or 1.5" hose, take your choice. Regardless of hose size, the intake should be fitted with a strainer to filter out stray bits and pieces.



Turkish Towel


The keel is an important part of the boat, and mine gets its share of attention. There was a long period when the paint would not stay on it, and every Spring it needed major work. I am very concerned that the shoulders of my keel (the part where the water accelerates and the lift takes place) be as smooth a curve as possible. Problems have been mainly licked due to good advice from Guy Paquet and Don Anderson. Here's how.


When I have a rust spot, it gets cleaned out with a .5" drill head, then a coat of Tremclad rust preventive paint is applied. Once I feel the rust is sealed, I use alternate layers of polyester putty (Interfill is my normal choice) and Klenk's bathtub epoxy enamel. The filler is to achieve progressive smoothness, and the enamel to provide a hard sealed surface. This works fine, but does not withstand hitting rocks - the bottom has to be re-done now and then, but it is the sides I worry about most.


There used to be a problem with water seeping down from the joint between keel and hull, because this area "works". You c

an't paint over this seam/joint, because the paint surface will always break, and you have just let water into the heart of your spring preparation! So what I do is to scrape this seam with a triangular scraper, or sharpened file handle, put the Tremclad on the keel side, and bottom paint on the other.

Once the keel is finished, I recaulk the seam with new compound

(see drawing).


I think the Tanzer has a well-shaped keel. Looks like a Great Black Shark upside down, from the side. How can you improve on that? Sure there is a thickening at the bottom, but you need weight down there. Who wants a great bulb? However, I think the leading edge should be semi-circular in plan, rather than the flat front we have now. I regard changing the leading edge as a little bit naughty for racing and, besides, the rocks wouldn't like it.


Next issue I'll tell you about the difficulty there is getting the boat centered on the trailer with those big blue wings that stick down at an angle.



Gerry Bush (#1666)


First time I've attended C.O.R.K. I was surprised to find that double-slotting (flying the Genoa or Jib at the same time as the Spinnaker) is not standard practice. It should be. Under most reaching conditions boat speed and handling will be improved and in some cases this improvement may be substantial.


First, when should you not try double slotting? If the wind is very light, say 00-3 knots interference between the Genoa and spinnaker increases the time it takes to set the spinnaker. It is most important to have the spinnaker flying or ready to fly at the first sign of wind. If I am not sure, I drop the Genoa as soon as the spinnaker is up. Once boat speed is between 2 and 3 knots I begin to consider hoisting the Genoa. For long spinnaker reaches under light conditions, the jib may also be considered, as it provides much the same gain without as much interference.

Two items are of utmost importance when double slotting. The first is never to over trim the Genoa. It disturbs the airflow on the back of the Genoa and causes the spinnaker to collapse. It is far better to have the first 2 feet of the Genoa luffing, than to have it fractionally over trimmed.


The second item is to have the tip of the pole high enough to create a slot between the Genoa and the spinnaker. When double slotting I like to start with the pole perpendicular to the apparent wind and perpendicular to the forestay. As the wind strengthens and the spinnaker will fly higher, the pole can be moved higher on the mast and levelled.


If the spinnaker collapses, for whatever reason, the Genoa should be eased immediately to force air into the spinnaker.


The crew member on the spinnaker sheet should give sail from instructions to the crew member/crew members on the Genoa, guy and pole. Best performance is only obtained if the crew works well together. This requires a certain amount of practice.


In very strong winds double slotting can make the boat more manageable. Every effort should be made to trim the Genoa. The spinnaker can be used more effectively in gusts by bringing the pole back, farther than square to the wind. If the boat is still overpowered the mainsail can be luffed as required.


Double slotting is an important racing tool which should be in your bag of tricks. When done properly it provides that extra speed or stability needed while reaching to pass nearby competitors.