No. 44 - June 1981


Charles W. Morse


A couple of notes concerning your article on antifouling paint in the May 1981 number. TBTF, Vinyl-Lux, and Micron 25 are vinyl base, but Bottomkote is an alkyd base paint. A rule of thumb is that any A.F. paint can be applied over vinyl as it has the strongest solvent base of all bottom paints and will not be softened by other paints. However, vinyl cannot be applied over other finishes as it will soften and lift them. Chlorinated Rubber A.F. paints such as Sikkens can be applied over vinyl but not over other paints. KL - 990, International Bottomkote, Pettit Unepoxy, etc., are alkyd base and vinyl or C.R. must not be applied over them. Sikkens makes a barrier primer called Uniscaler which can be used to protect the substrate from the solvents in the C.R.


Prime wash 353/354 and Vitalize Aluminum 351 is a good metal primer system but must be used as directed. The metal should be sanded bright. Pay attention to the mixing ratio for the Primewash, i.e.: 4 parts #353, 2 parts thinner #5, and 1 part #354. If you already have some vinyl thinner #4 you can make a reasonable facsimile of Thinner #5 by mixing 3 parts stove alcohol to 1 part Thinner #4.


Finally, while cuprous oxide paints such as Vinyl-lux, Bottomkote, or KL 990 do exacerbate the keel rusting problem as you state, TBTF, T.B.T.O., and Triphenyltin (Sikkens) are pretty inert electrolitically and do not really accelerate the corrosive processes.




Newport can supply some interesting cruising grounds within a 30 mile radius. Each of these areas has its own personality.


Block Island is Southwest of Newport and is about 23 miles off shore. It is, of course, the location of the famous Block Island week regatta. There are· two harbors, New Harbor and Old Harbor. Most anchoring is done in New Harbor. Once ashore you can rent bicycles or mopeds to tour the island.


Cuttyhunk Island is about 30 miles East of Newport and is a quaint and quiet little island. If you're lucky, you can tie up to a dock. If not, you can anchor in the protected harbor (which gets very crowded on weekends). There is one restaurant and one small store but there are no heads or laundry facilities. However, it is a lot of fun to just see the sights (you can see Martha's Vineyard) and watch the active wildlife. While I was there two years ago, we watched a family of deer eating the grass near a little house. This is a very restful island to visit.


Martha's Vineyard is about 5 miles East of Cuttyhunk (depending on what area you want to visit). Some of the most popular spots are, starting at the West end of the island, Menemsha, Tashmoo, Vineyard Haven (where all the ferries come in), and Edgartown. My favorite is Edgartown with its older charm. It is very similar to Newport with its historic and less commercial flavor. Edgartown Marina has

moorings for rent which includes launch service. They also have shower and clothes washing facilities. Once on shore, there are tour guides and bicycles or mopeds available so you can see this beautiful island. Vineyard Haven is much more built up for the ferry traffic and the anchorage area is not quite as nice as Edgartown. No moorings or slips are usually available. There are many interesting shops and restaurants within easy walking distance in Vineyard Haven and Edgartown.


Menemsha and Tashmoo are small, quiet harbors with no shore facilities available but they do make nice resting spots. Just make sure you watch the channels going in since there is only about 4 feet of water.


On the way back from Martha's Vineyard you can stop at Cuttyhunk again or some other small harbors such as Hadley's Harbor which is near Wood's Hole.


These are just a few of the possible cruising grounds near Newport. If you don't want to go off shore, you can spend a week just investigating Narragansett Bay.




Bob Rice (#1186)


There are three main variables in sail shape:

1. Draft. This is the depth of the curve, looking down on a horizontal slice, i.e.


2. Trim. This is how tight the sail is pulled in by the sheet. It affects how the wind hits the leading edge of the sail.



3.   Twist. This is how the trim varies as you move up from the bottom of the sail to the top.



Bob first gives some pointers and then reviews all the devices and control lines that affect these variables. Read on!

1.   Get right shape in headsail first - draft about 1/3 aft.

2.   Then adjust mainsail so draft is about 1/2 aft.

3.   Tightening luff moves draft forward, easing it allows draft to move aft.

4.   Tightening foot (outhaul on main; fairlead aft for headsail) flattens sail, easing it creates more draft.

5.   Tensioning sheet creates more draft aloft, easing it flattens sail aloft.

6.   Moving head sail sheet lead forward increases draft, moving it aft flattens the sail.

7.   Trim sail or head boat off wind until sail barely stops luffing, with slightest quiver along leading edge.

8.   In very light air, ease Cunningham and outhaul to increase draft and move it back into centre of sail.

9.   With increasing winds, loading in centre of sail is increased so apply tension to Cunningham and outhaul to flatten sail and move draft from aft of centre back to middle, thus reducing heel.

10. When one control is adjusted, check sails to see whether other controls should be adjusted.

11. When running, ease outhaul to add draft along foot of sail, ease Cunningham to slacken luff tension or raise gooseneck slide and lock in up position so it will not be pulled down when vang is applied.

12. Vang is very important when traveller is not used. On broad reach, apply vang so that leech is under control as mainsheet is eased.

13. Apparent wind direction over the sails is changing continually: as boat speed changes, as pointing angle changes and as the sails are trimmed.

14. Wind velocity is greater aloft, thus angle of attack aloft is different. Sail is trimmed to provide more twist aloft, checking amount of twist to get the sail to luff up and down the forward edge simultaneously.

15. If sail luffs up high first, there is too much twist. If it luffs down low first, there is not enough twist.

16.When checking sail trim, look at: (1) athwartship trim - are sails on the edge of the luff? (2) vertical trim - do you have enough twist? (3) the slot - is it neither too wide nor too narrow?



Tanzer 22 Device Review









Controls amount of draft in lower sail.


1. Controls foot tension.

2. Loose: more draft in lower half

of sail.

3. Tight: flattens lower half of sail.

4. Too tight: tension curls, foot.

5. Light -air: ease 1-2" so sail cloth can work into sail and increase draft.


Controls fore and aft location of draft

1. Loose: allows draft to move aft.

2. Tight: pulls draft forward.

1. Too tight: tension curls on luff.

2. When tensioned, relieves load on tack pin.

3. When tensioned, pulls luff into straight line and draws sail cloth from centre, reducing draft.

4. Light winds: ease to increase draft and move to centre of sail.

5. Moderate winds: tension to move draft to centre flatten sail (less heel).


Athwartship trim for main




Leech control off-wind


1. Controls twist on reach or running.

2. Reach: Apply vang to reduce twist until sail luffs evenly from top to bottom.

3. Run: Tighten to eliminate twist.


Controls leech twist.

1. Twist changes draft at various heights of sail.

2. Excess twist can make sail luff aloft.

3. Twist allows change in angle of attach at various heights.

4. Loose: removes curvature from aft portion of sail, renders it ineffective; decreases remaining draft; causes deepest point of draft to move forward.

5. Tight: curves leech to windward; thus increasing draft in aft part of sail; moves deepest draft aft (heel).

Main Halyard


Controls luff tension and fore and aft location of draft


1.  Raise mainsail as high as practical.

2. Move boom up or down on sliding gooseneck.

3. Tighten luff: draft moves forward.

4. Ease luff: draft moves aft.

Jib/Genoa halyard


Jib/ Genoa

Controls luff tension


1.  Loose: draft moves aft.

2. Tight: draft moves forward.

3. Set so draft maximum point is 33 to 40 percent aft on upwind course.

Jib/Genoa fairlead


Controls foot and leech shape


1.Sheet lead increases tension on foot and eases tension on leech when aft.

2.When forward, sheet lead eases tension on foot, adds tension on leech.

3.Working jib: set lead so line through clew to block is 60-70% up luff.

4.No. 1 Genoa: set lead so line through clew to block is 45-50% up luff.

5.Adjust until sail luffs evenly from head to foot.

6.Aft: puts tension on foot (similar to tightening outhaul - flattens lower portion of headsail, decreases tension on leech, causes more leech twist, thus flattening upper sail.

7.Forward: puts tension on leech, eases foot tension, creates more draft high in sail.

8.Too far forward; sail too full at bottom, resulting in luff in lower sail while upper sail is full and drawing.

9.Too far aft: Upper sail has excess twist and will luff first.






Don Anderson



This ladder is a strong simply-constructed devise which has the following characteristics:-

1. When rolled up it stows as a cylindrical bundle about 1 1/2 ft. long and about 10" in diameter.

2. It can be deployed quickly almost anywhere over the side, but works best over the starboard side of the transom.

3. It is handy in single-handing where it can be stowed in a roll on the poop deck, its upper loop cleated, and its lower loop attached to a heaving line trailed overboard. Anyone in the water pulling on the heaving line automatically deploys the ladder.

4. It could conceivably be used either as a "basket" slung from the boom to bring in a man overboard, or as an ordinary rope-ladder parbuckle to "roll" him aboard by pulling on a line attached to the loop at the lower end.

5. Its dubious buoyancy can be enhanced by inserting corks to entrap air in the upper­most rung before assembly. Alternatively plastic bottle caps (try ones from "Club House" spice bottles) can be epoxied in just inside the holes.

6. After five summers of use my ladder shows no significant deterioration.

7. The main disadvantage is that, like most rope ladders, it tends to swing under the hull when one stands on the lower rungs, necessitating a degree of agility when climbing aboard.



5 lengths of ordinary 1 1/2" ID PVC pipe l7 1/2" long

36 feet 1/2" polypropylene rope.


Drill eight 31/64" diameter holes in each of the five rungs, all holes in the same plane and spaced 3/4" from each other and from the ends of the rung as shown. Deburr all holes inside and out and also the ends of the rungs.


Double the rope so that one side is approximately 24" longer than the other. Prepare the ends with heat and/or a very tight binding and a wire lead so that they can be led through the holes in the pattern pictured. Leave an 8 1/2 foot length of doubled rope at the top to form a loop for cleating.


Lead each of the rope ends through its own four holes as follows.

The rope passes through the upper inner hole, crosses to the outer lower hole, then splits two strands on one side and one on

the other side of the pipe back to the upper outer hole. The strands there rejoin and go through this hole and cross to the inner lower hole thence to the next rung where it repeats the pattern. Keep the two rungs being thus joined exactly parallel and 12" apart center-to-center.


When 5 rungs have been thus joined, the uneven lengths remaining are spliced together using the short end and the long end is spliced to form a loop.



This home made bungee is useful for holding sails on booms and forestays, or for securing almost anything.


Required (per bungee):

1 - 3" length ½” ID ordinary PVC plumbing pipe

1 - length of 5/32" diameter shock cord 20" to 34" in length

2 - corks approximately 1" long and to fit 1/2" hole snugly.


Obtain a length of 1/2" PVC piping. Saw 3" lengths from it as desired. Drill one 1/4" diameter hole through into the tubing at the centre of the 3" length.


Cut the shock cord to approximately 3" more than double the length of the bungee desired. Poke the two bungee ends through the hole in the centre and out the ends of the tubing where you can tie a simple knot in each one. Pull them back in tight so as to form the extended loop.


As it is now, the bungee will not float if dropped in the water. Cut two corks as detailed above from an old wine bottle cork (frugality, frugality!) and plug in the ends. Voila!




John Charters


An area of concern to all boat owners is leaks. This is too big a subject to cover completely in this issue, so I'll confine my remarks to a couple of problem areas. A boat works and flexes every time you take her out. Eventually, some of the caulking becomes unstuck and a potential place for a small leak to start. At least once a year, you should check the obvious places. The ports, where the aluminum frame meets the fiberglass, all the through deck fittings, including the Genoa track. Quite honestly, this is not always too easy. The cure is generally easy, it's finding where the water gets in, that's the tough part.


Pick a rainy day, or have an assistant with a garden hose, and inspect each and every through fitting. On the newer Tanzers, that means prying out all those little plastic plugs in the headliner. If you are lucky, you will find the leak, first shot. Remember, water can end up far removed from where it entered. One owner found he was getting water in the bilge, but only after sailing in heavy weather.

One would naturally suspect the hull deck joint. Right? Wrong! His lower gudgeon was loose! Only in heavy weather did the stern squat enough to put the gudgeon under water. I heard of another similar story. Not a Tanzer, this time, but it could apply. This owner was getting water in the bilge, but only when he had been on a starboard tack. Rub rail? No, water was coming in through the chain plate and collecting in a pocket somewhere. And it stayed there until the boat was heeled. I'm sure there are many other such stories. So you'll have to use your imagination. Here's some other less than obvious places to look. Water tank has sprung a leak. Split in hose from ice box. A crack in the cockpit drain tube. Once you find where the water is coming in, the cure is generally very simple. In almost every case, recaulking the offending fitting should do the trick. You can use silicone, butyl or polysulfide caulking. All of them work well.


The hull deck joint is another area of concern to owners. In fact, that poor old joint gets blamed every time someone finds water below. And half the time, it's not to blame at all. If after eliminating all other causes you still think the hull and deck joint is leaking, then you should remove that piece of teak trim inside, remove any loose caulking and recaulk. However, you should try to find out where the water gets in first. That means, after removing the teak trim, go out and sail, rail under on both tacks and while someone else steers, go below and see what you can see. I cannot emphasize enough how important it is to find where the water gets in. You can waste hours, maybe days plugging up the wrong holes.


After a year or two, the sponge rubber gasket on the cockpit lockers loses some of its sponginess, and water will find its way down into the cockpit lockers. Those of you that-insist on over canvassing and sailing the boat on its ear will have experienced this more than the average sailors. If you fill the leeward cockpit seat with a half-dozen gallons of water, it will find its way below!


Here is a recommendation. If the rubber seal is in bad shape, replace it. Otherwise, have a look at the underside of the cockpit hatch. You will see marks of where this gasket touches. Chances are, you will see areas where the contact is minimal, if at all. The solution, wander down to your local auto supply store and buy some self-adhesive rubber weather stripping and put this on the underside of the seat.

Now, when you close the hatch, you should feel a definite contact with the rubber, the lock hasp should be just a little harder to close than before. When you sail in heavy weather, lock this hasp closed with a wood or plastic wedge. Don't use a padlock; even if you leave it unlocked, someone is bound to kick it locked by

mistake. Then in an emergency, just when you need to get in the cockpit locker for a life jacket or a heaving line, you'll have to fiddle around unlocking the padlock.