No. 39 - March 1980



(Paul Bowen of Irwin, PA, asks our Measurer, Don Anderson.)


1. What is the camber ratio (at a specific cord length) used by most racers? What is standard for sails as sold by Vector, Atlantic, etc.?


A. The camber ratio is something that seems to be largely under the control of the sail makers themselves, and no doubt each one has ideas of his own. I recently got one from Rockall which was flatter than my old Atlantic one, and very possibly they made it that way because of something I said about sailing on inland lakes a lot. I would refer you to "Sail Makers News Letters" put out by Hood and North. Generally, one buys a sail of a certain maker, and the maker tends to choose the camber he favours, and probably his reputation depends on that choice more than anything else. Most books are quite vague about the optimum camber of a sail. However, Jeremy Howard-Williams has a good discussion in his book called "Sails", and there is a discussion in Marchaj.


2. I plan to buy a new sail. For a non-racer, which is best for me -- full sails (what camber ratio?) or flat sails? I now have an Atlantic sail, steel luff line without cunningharn or leach line.


A. My old No. 1 Genoa was like yours and I found it a very good sail.


3. Which is used more, hard or soft Dacron material?


A.    I don't know, but soft Dacron is supposed to last longer and, no doubt, sail makers could comment on this question.


4.    Which is used more, steel or rope luffs?


A. Rope luffs seem to be used more and more, now.


5.    Are single or tandem (6" or 8" behind one another) tuffs used for luffing? ... are leach luffs used?


A. We usually call your tuffs, tell-tales. Generally, 2 or 3 are used about 6" behind the forestay in the jib, but I have seldom seen them along the leach in the Genoa. Quite often, the lower one along the luff is mounted in a window where it can be seen easily from the helmsman's position. To be so seen, it should be slightly lower than 1/3 height. Tell-tales are frequently used up the leach of the mainsail to indicate stalling.


6. Do most racers use tape markings on halyards and sheets?


A.    I don't think most racers use marks on halyards and sheets, but I have noticed that some do. I think it is a good idea, even though I myself have never bothered.


7.    Is there an easy way to measure camber in the Genoa? Must it be measured during sailing by photographs? Or, can they be measured on the ground? If it has to be stretched horizontally and the sag measured, what is the tension on the head, clew, and tack?


A. I think it would be difficult to get a good measure of camber in the Genoa unless it is being sailed where obviously it is under pressure, with all the wrinkles out - or should be. Certainly, a photograph is one way, but I can imagine someone in a boat nearby, who is quick with a sextant, getting a measure of it. I don't know what the tension on head, clew and tack would be under these circum­stances.


8.    Using a Cunningham, how much can the camber be reduced? How far forward can the max. camber be moved when pointing high (beating), with the wind velocity at 6 - 12 mph?


A. A Cunningham is principally supposed to move the camber forward when it is tightened, rather than reduce it, although I can imagine some reduction might be affected. Some people emphasize the 40% rule which says that the maximum camber should be 40% of the way from the luff to the leech. No doubt it should move somewhat about that much, forward when the wind velocity is higher.


9.    For the No. 2 Genoa, what is the camber ratio (or camber) for a standard sail? For me, is it even more important that it be flat? What should the camber be?


A. Mike Nicoll-Griffith suggests you can easily overdo flatness in the No. 2 Genoa. Obviously, the overlap is lesser with the No. 2 and the camber may be more a consideration of how it is affecting the main.


Two other books I have found interesting are Wallace's "Sail Power" and another one called "Sail and Power", plus the current sailing journals who are forever voluble on this subject.




Rudi Harbauer


Again, Tanzer 22 no. 1170 ("Bohemia"), owned and skippered by Rudi Harbauer, placed 3rd in its division in the Third Annual Around L.I. Regatta sponsored by -"Newsday".


The start of the race, Friday, was a beautiful hot day though very humid. A nice afternoon breeze of 10-15 knots out of the

sailing a delight. The forecast was super. A front would be moving through the next day with a wind shift out of the NW and a forecast of low humidity. It seemed to be ideal conditions. However, like so often happens, the forecasters were wrong. The front never came and a short thunderstorm the next day offered no relief.


The 5:00 PM start off Coney Island was perfect. Myself and a dedicated crew of three were just where we wanted to be. It was a reach along the south shore of L.I. throughout the night taking advantage of favourable currents close to shore until midnight and then going further off shore. At sunrise on Saturday, the winds started to get variable and light. We switched sails, between the 165 Genoa and the Spinnaker, 8 to 10 times, and struggled along. It seemed that we sailed in all the holes, the entire fleet passing us off shore. Later than afternoon however, we picked up the thermals and started passing many boats. We carried our Tri-radial for hours, rounding Montauk Point very close to shore at 9:00 PM. Fortunately, visibility was excellent. Now for the big question: Would we be able to pass through Plum Gut, the narrow passage into the Sound? Current to get through would be favourable until 1:30 or 2:00 AM Sunday. Would the wind, now blowing 10-12 knots, hold until then? We were lucky and at 12:30 to 1:00 AM were able to get through, one of the last boats to do so. We headed for the middle of the Sound where the current would least affect us. The wind switched to NE and the battle against tide and wind was on. We knew we had arrived in the Sound -- this unpredictable stretch of water with its tricky currents and light, variable winds.


From here on it was slow going. It was Sunday morning. The winds were 8-10 knots NW. We were doing 3 knots against a 1.6 knot current. It was a slow process until the tide changed at 10:00 AM, pushing us west. In the next 6 hours, we made good progress, bringing us close to Port Jefferson in late afternoon. Luckily, we caught the edge of a thunder­storm off the Connecticut shore and got some wind. We even had to change to our no. 2 and reef the main for 45 minutes. In the late afternoon, the wind became light and we were again bucking the current as well as the wind out of the west for the next 6 hours. We arrived at Eaton's Neck at midnight and there the wind died. There was only one solution in order to keep from drifting back (eastward): we dropped anchor. There we sat for hours until the next shift came in the current. Very frustrating! Thereafter, it was slow progress.

With a little wind here and there to supplement our speed, we went at 1.5 knots. The spinnaker was hanging limp, and when we were able to do 3 knots we were exhilarated. There was constant switching between no. 1 Genoa and Spinnaker. The light winds now came from the SW. Unable to hold our course because of tidal currents, we were pulled to shore several times where we got caught in the lee of the land. Tacking away several times toward the North, we finally arrived at the finish line at 17:00 hrs. Monday -- 72 hours after the start!


We sure were tired! Luckily, our supplies of food and drink were plentiful. We got plenty of rest physically, but it was a mental strain. We never suspected that we were one of the first to arrive in our division. We had prepared ourselves to win the Hero's Trophy for the last boat in the race to finish. Navigation on this trip was the key. It was a full time job to figure and compute currents, wind and drift. Endurance was another necessary aspect. Out of the 145 boats that started the race, only 100 finished. Of the entire fleet, we were the smallest boat to finish -- the Tanzer 22 has proved it can handle any such long distance race.


My conclusions: The Tanzer 22 performs well in light winds. It handles well in strong winds as well, but it is the tendency of most T22 sailors (myself included) to carry too much sail.




Rudi Harbauer


Since the existence of the Governor's Cup Race, the size of boats which could enter was limited to 24 feet. This season, 22-foot boats were invited to join. We entered in "Full Race Category" which meant sailing with spinnaker setup. The competition seemed tough. There were such boats as the Pearson 26, Morgan 24, a Ranger 22, Seidelman 25, several C & C 24, plus others. The Tanzer 22 was given a rating in PHRF of 226 against a Pearson 26 with a rating of 209. This meant a time difference of 4 minutes and 23 seconds over the course of 15.5 nautical miles. It was a beautiful day, 15-18 knot winds out of the NW, a perfect day. The race started at the Battery at 12:00 noon, with a current running south at 2.5 knots. We had a perfect start, just 2 seconds off the gun. We were heading in the most favourable current. Soon our Tri-radial blossomed, and at the first mark (which was 1 mile south of the Verazzano Bridge) we had passed most of the Division boats which started 5 minutes before we did. After that, it was beating and tacking home between moving and anchored Cargo ships and tankers. In exactly 3 hours, we crossed the finish line knowing we had sailed a good race. We were very happy, as "the smallest boat in the entire fleet of 128 boats, to finish 2nd in our division.




Rudi J. Harbauer, Freeport, N.Y., no. 1170.


In seconds, your T22 can be converted from a cruiser to a racer without losing either performance or convenience.


On a beautiful day this spring, I singlehanded in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island. There was a Steady 8-10 Knot breeze . . .  just perfect for a spinnaker run. I don't have to tell anyone who sets a spinnaker alone, the type of work involved. I got it flying okay - but climbing over the traveller constantly was too much. I considered elimination of it altogether, but hesitated since I race the boat a lot. This problem had to be solved another way.



First came the consolidation of all movable parts onto the traveller horse. Second was the installation of two pieces of 1-inch track from cockpit locker to companionway. Third, 2 pole eyes (1-inch) were welded on a bronze plate and fastened to the traveller horse. Fourth, an additional track on the underside of the boom with a pole eye allowed the mainsheet to be moved.

After 6 months of cruising-racing, as well as single-handing, I can report that we are a happy sailing family. It works just great!