No. 6 - June, 1972

MORE ON TRAILERS

Jean T. Vachon

P.O. Box 437 Orleans, Ontario

 

This trailer was built for me by professional farm machinery builders, the design being a joint effort. The boat sits (waterline) 65" above ground. The frame of the trailer is reinforced where the keel rests to provide additional support; and the boat's c.g. when in place is located right over the axels. Six ply tires are used, inflated at 75 Ibs. Axle and wheel sizes are as shown on the diagram. I have had 4 tie-down rings welded onto the frame for securing purposes. The cradle itself is attached by means of six one-foot lengths of chain to the frame bolts and large washers. Needless to say, the whole assembly has not moved. A long trussed tongue completes the arrangement.

 

Speed in towing has been limited to 40 MPH, as I noticed that over that speed, oscillations could be set up, probably as a result of three factors; length and loading of tongue, spring rates and suspension design. Total cost of the trailer was under $500.

 

By the way, I also have the old style cradle, which makes launching difficult. To remedy the problems involved in floating the stern off,

I substituted bolts with large wing nuts for those permanently fixing ­the back support just before launching. It then becomes a rather straight forward operation to remove the support once in the water.


4 wheels - 570/500 - 8" 6 ply 960 lbs capacity 751b

Axles: 2" straight type

Peripheral frame: 4" x 2"

X members 3" x 3"

All welding electrical

+ License holder & lights

Bed length 146"

Bed width: 60" ..,

Tongue length: 87"

 

 

WARNING FROM NOTICES TO MARINERS

TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN ELECTRONIC DEVICES – CAUTION

 

The dust of Beryllium Oxide (Beryllia) material is toxic and is used in certain electronic components that may be found In electronic equipment on board: power transistors (especially VHF type), power diodes, thyristors, ceramic material where identified by blue coloration or black lines heat sink washers.

 

Beryllia IS highly dangerous in a dust form when it might be inhaled or enter a cut or skin irritation. Entering through the skin it can cause chronic ulcerations; inhaled, a single exposure lasting seconds can endanger life or cause permanent injury. Symptoms of poisoning indicated by respiratory troubles or cyanosis may develop within a week - or after a latent period extending to several years.

 

 

ANCHORS & ANCHORING

No one really wants to drag anchor across a harbor, risking damage toequipment - or even loss of life. But in the snug security of ignorance a lot of anchoring practices are seen that you would not want to be to leeward of on a bad night. For a very complete discussion of this topic you are referred to Chapman's "piloting, Seamanship & Small Boat Handling”.

 

The anchor(s) you choose are determined by local conditions and practice, and stowage space. Most likely, you have an 8 lb. Danforth, which fits so neatly into the anchor well. This is your working anchor. If you are cruising, you should also have a storm anchor. You might choose either the 131 lb. or the 22 lb. Danforth. For your working anchor, your rode should be at least 150’ of 3/8” nylon. At one end you will work an eye splice around a thimble; and through this, shackle on some chain - at least 3’of 3/16” - which you shackle to the anchor. You will want a longer rode for the storm anchor - at least 200', and heavier chain: a minimum of 4’of ¼”.You might also want to use ½” nylon for the rode.

 

Danforths are good for sand and mud bottoms. The plow anchor (CaR)is effective on a wider variety of bottoms; and because of the pivoting feature of the shank, it tends to stay buried when the wind or current changes the angle of pull. However, it is a nasty item to store, especially on small boats.

 

The Northill is good for sand and mud, and has also proven itself in heavy kelp and in some rocky areas. A 12 lb Northill with 150' of 3/8” nylon and 3' of 3/16” chain will suffice for your working anchor. For a storm anchor, you would move up to a 27 lb with the same rode you'd use for a Danforth storm anchor.

 

The reason for using nylon for your anchor rode is that it is the strongest and most elastic. Under load, it can stretch 1/3 or more. This elasticity is valuable for absorbing shock loads on the ground tackle when the boat surges in heavy seas. And do we ever surge around! Of course, you CAN attach this directly to the anchor; but it is preferable to have the chain in between for 2 reasons. 1) The lightest anchors tend to bury themselves completely, and the chain will stand chafe better ­than the nylon. 2) The weight of the chain helps to lower the angle of pull so that the anchor digs into the bottom better. By the way, polypropylene should not desecrate your ground tackle system. It has everything wrong with it, and it's only advantage around a boat is that it makes a good dinghy painter because it floats and is, therefore, less likely to become fouled with your propeller.

 

Speaking of angle of pull . . . you can have an instructive exorcise - for the kids, of course - if you take your anchor and rode out in the yard and drag it around, both with a large angle of pull, and a small, observing how your anchor would behave in an anchorage.

 

Scope is the ratio of rode length (from the bow chocks) to the depth of the water, plus an allowance for height of the bow above the water. Under really good conditions, a scope of 5:1 can be considered a satisfactory minimum. But under average conditions, the scope should be 7 or 8.1. In very heavy weather: 10:1 - providing you won't swing into other boats. Anchors need a low angle of pull to dig in; and if you have a short scope, the anchor will tend to pullout, the elasticity of the rode being reduced. It is a help if your rode is marked every 20' feet, so that you know how much you've paid out.

 

Use your chart and your head (the one on your shoulders, that is) in choosing an overnight anchorage. Most obvious is protection from expected weather. Then you want a good bottom, with no submarine cables lying around. Mud and clay are good bottoms, or sandy mud. Soft, loose sand and soft muds are bad. Rocks are usually bad, as are heavy weeds. Also, bottoms thick with grass often prevent a fluke from taking hold. If you're on the coast, you must take tidal range into consideration. Then you have to bear in mind possible 360 degree swings of the other anchored boats. They got there first and it is their right to be treated with respect. It is up to you to anchor in such a way that you won't disturb them. It is also your obligation not to spill their drinks with your wake. They will also, by the way, hear every word you say - and either admire or condemn your level of seamanship and consideration.

 

Once you've found the ideal spot, you approach it SLOWLY, and head up against the wind or current - whichever is strongest - until the boat has no way on. Then you LOWER the anchor. You don't hurl it, heave it or throw it, as the rode might foul on a fluke. Now your boat is slowly gathering sternway; and if it isn't, you help it along with the motor in reverse. You are, of course, not standing in the coiled rode on the deck; and the bitter end (inboard end) is fastened to the boat. SLOWLY reversing, the rode is paid out - not tossed out in a snarled heap. When you've paid out a scope of about 8:1 you snub the line to the cleat, and the anchor should bite in. You can shorten it later, should conditions indicate that it is desirable to do so. If you snub too soon, the anchor might drag. When you think it has bitten, give it a reverse load some­what in excess of what you think the anchor will have to contend with. Then, before starting the happy hour, line up two somethings on shore ­trees, perhaps, and observe their apparent distance from each other, which will change if you're dragging. Or, you know you're holding if you can pull the boat up to the anchor, rather than vice-versa. Sometimes pay­ing out more scope with an occasional yank will encourage the anchor to bite. There is, by the way, no disgrace in starting all over again in a new spot should your anchor refuse to cooperate.

 

Rafting overnight is usually an unwise practice. If 4 or more boats raft, the outboard boats should carry anchors out at a 45 degree angle. Don't forget periodic inspection of shackles and their pins, and your anchor rode. Sand and grit in the strands of the line deteriorate it­and rust stains are a great destroyer of nylon.

 

May your sleep not be disturbed with worries about dragging!

 


THE LIGHTNING CONTROVERSY

As a result of John's article on lightning protection, we heard from Clint Chamberlain of the Buoy 22 Marina, Hayes, Virginia. Right here and now, let me say that the Newsletter is very glad to hear from the T22 dealers. Specially as WG don't hear from any of the rest of you after the snow has melted. One previous correspondent told this intrepid Ed. that the facts in this letter should be checked more carefully. So I now obediently wake up at 3 AM with scepticism.

 

Clint writes that one should, "install the equivalent of the old fashioned lightning rod which is designed to discharge an electrical cloud be­fore the potential builds to the point that a 'strike' occurs." He suggests a wind vane; and also feels that a length of old halyard wire hanging into the water from a shroud is adequate. The reason, he claims, for the point at the top of the mast is that a point permits a much higher electrostatic potential and will therefore do a much better job of discharging a charged cloud. Further, that grounding the mast to the keel bolts is no good because of the resistance of the paints and resins to this small discharge current.

 

I can't swallow that. Voltages in a bolt of lightning can run to 15,000,000 volts; and a lightning bolt can travel 20 - 100 miles cloud to cloud, or 8 miles cloud to earth. How can you trickle a charge out of a cloud? And that cloud would be miles away before fully charged, anyway. The cloud you are going to worry about builds up its charge be­fore it is near enough to know your mast exists! And in the face of these enormous voltages, what is the point of a point at the top of a metal mast?

 

The encyclopaedia Britannica says: "Contrary to popular belief, lightning rods do not act to prevent lightning strokes; but, rather, exert a local influence to direct strokes safely to earth."

 

The meteorologists at the Dorval Weather Bureau when I continued with my homework, told me lot of stuff about charges on plastic hulls as a result of friction through the water. And, when I'd confused them with my questions, passed me on to the next guy. Finally, I ended up with Mr. Norman Powe, who was most kind, patient and helpful. He made a whole series of calls for me and tracked down Mr. B.K. Scarlett. I called Mr. Scarlett in Toronto. He is a Professional Engineer, a sailor, too, by great good luck; and a member of Port Credit Yacht Club. He said that you do not need to have a point on your mast, that you do not need to worry about the insulating qualities of the paint and resin on the keel, that the keel should be grounded to the mast by the shortest, straightest route. He uses no.6 wire. If you hang chains over the side to ground your mast, they do not have a large enough underwater surface unless connected to a copper plate of some sort. He also pointed out the advantage of a well grounded mast should you hit a power line. An ungrounded mast can pick up a stray charge - which you can bodily discharge by placing yourself between the mast or shrouds and ground: out it is unlikely that voltages would be near a dangerous level.

 

Just a bit more, so that you can draw your own conclusions: The amount of current that flows in a conductor (i.e., your mast) is a function of the voltage and the resistance. Current (1) = voltage (E) divided by the resistance (R) in Ohms. 1 Ohm of R will limit the current to 1 amp with an applied E of 1 volt. The thicker the wire the less its resistance. Air is a good insulator (high resistance) and enormous voltages are required to break down miles of it. Your mast is a good conductor (low resistance). If I= E/R, and E = millions of volts, your mast can have a high current flowing through it. To say the least. The currant capacity of no.6 wire is 50 amps; or no.8 wire is 35 amps. The resistance of no.6 wire is .3951 Ohms per 1,000'; of no.8 wire it is .6282 Ohms per 1,000'. No.6 is 2531 feet per Ohm (resistance increases with length) and no.8 is 1592 feet per Ohm. It wouldn't seem that either wire Will survive a direct lightning strike; but you can hope it will direct it to ground (the water) through the keel rather than through something less desirable (you?).

 

In experiments with electricity, pointed ends are used because, for some reason, electrons fly off a pointed end more readily than off a blunt end (e.g. of a rod). But these arc experiments are unrelated to the action of the top of your mast when a thunderstorm comes along.

 

Now, I really hope that we aren't going to get into a discussion of auantum Theory, neutrinos, nuclear physics. And I hope you'll keep writing with your disagreements - you keep my brain awake.

 


IDEAS FROM DON CRANDALL

To attach chock cord, or plastic cord for using as curtain rods: strap eyes screwed into the headliner at either end. . . Fridge-o-Seal containers, bread loaf size, fit on shelves beside quarter berths - aft and out of sight; and one on top of the other.

 


IDEAS FROM BRIAN BEST

Plexiglas companionway “board”, which will be used with the other half screened, so that the cabin has more light when you're cabin-bound by rain on a cruise. . . For those who can't get end hooks for the curtain rods that have snap-sliders: A little brass scew through the slider (the plastic above the snap) which you then screw in place just into the track, to hold the outer end of the curtain in place.

 


TEAK CLEANER

Bill Bragger - Spic and Span and hot water.

Don Crandall - Bon Ami. Sail Magazine says not to use any kind of linseed oil on teak as it oxidizes in the sun and turns dark. Once oxidized, it is almost impossible to remove.

 


NEW FROM TANZER INDUSTRIES

Main Hatch - COMPANIONWAY FOLDING TOP (rain and spray hood). . . Not a dodger and not just a pop-top. It folds down forward when not in use, but can remain up when you are under sail. Built on an aluminum frame, the sides are transparent, with a screen that snaps down into the companionway entrance. This is an effective addition for utilizing comfort, which will reduce the apparent shrinkage of the cabin in rainy weather. Further details can be had from Tanzer Industries;  It can be seen on Hans Tanzer’s boat (no. 500) at IPYC. Price is approximately $130.

 

MAST LOWERING GIZMO - ONE MAN UNDERWAY STYLE OPERATION.

This one can be seen on No. 500. An A-frame type of arrangement, requiring some new deck fittings, which eliminates the danger of sideways sway when lowering or raising the mast. This will be a help to the fellow who can’t rely on the supply of gorillas for getting under low bridges. It makes the whole operation very simple and safe – at a price (maybe these things shouldn’t be printed where wives might see them). Ah well, it costs approx. $125.



GUESTS WE HAVE LOVED

Wore jogging shoes - first, for gardening

Brought along potato chips for lunch

Sat on the jib sheet. Always.

Didn't ask first how to use the head

Threw a beer can overboard

Told us all about his friend's big power cruiser

Dropped a hot ash on a sail bag

Used greasy suntan oil

Brought a sun reflector

Had a sun allergy

Told me how the sun ravages, wrinkles your skin

Pointed to an ugly tub and asked, "Is that another T22?”

Said, "Oh! You can't stand up in here!”

Asked, incredulous, "I have to jump from here to there?"

And, “But how do you take a bath?"· (We didn't tell)

 

And, “How do you KNOW it won't tip over?".

And said, “Gosh, it must be nice to have, a yacht." (A YACHT?)

Had just come from the hairdresser, and wouldn’t leave the cabin. 

But then there were others, who we’ll invite again.

 


A TANZER 22 1/3

That’s right - a 1/4 ton Tanzer 22! Almost a "do it yourself" modification that can be done, and still stay within our class rules. While all the exact measurements are not complete yet, by the time you read this they will be.If you can't wait until next Newsletter - drop a line to the Class Association and we'll give them to you.

Briefly - this is what has to be done.                                          ~".

1) The mainsail will have to be flown slightly higher & IOR black bands put on top & bottom of mast. This means moving the goose neck slide up slightly, and is not contrary to rule 2.7.

2) The height that the spinnaker pole can be flown must be restricted. A bolt through the slide will do this. (does not conflict with rule 2.93). Also the spinnaker pole has to be shortened a couple of inches.

3)     Maximum spinnaker girth to be 15.4 feet. (we allow 16 feet)

4) The "I" measurement has to be shortened slightly - The factory has a simple means of doing this without adversely affecting the normal standing rigging - or sail setting.

5) The “LPG" of the #1 Genoa may have to be shortened slightly.

 

The Tanzer 22, in its standard form comes so close to the magic 18 of IOR MkllI, that with these minor alterations - becomes feasable for anyone really serious about 1/4 ton racing. But before you get your hack­saw & sewing machine out - remember, you'll still have to have an IOR official measurer do his bit, and issue a certificate. This will cost you something over $200.00.



AUXILIARY POWER

Two new outboard engines have appeared on the market since Newsletter #4. The “MAC" 10 Wankel - 9.5 HP - 77 lbs. - sold by Goldberg's for $549.00. And the Honda 7.5 HP - 4 stroke outboard, weighing 70 lbs. If nothing else - it eliminates the tiresome chore of mixing oil with gas. We expect to run some tests on this new Honda motor - more details in the next Newsletter.



TRAILERING

Reese make, in addition to a varied line of lead equalizing hitches, a sway control that is said to control fishtailing or sway by forcing the trailer to track directly behind your car. Cost about $30.00, and attached between the trailer frame and their equalizing hitch. If anyone has installed one of these, we'd like a report back on their effectiveness.

 

 

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