No. 5 - April, 1973

HOW TO RAISE OR LOWER THE MAST

 

John Charters (as related by Jean-Robert Maynard, Ste. Therese, Quebec.)

 

NOTE: Tanzer Industries has serious reservations about the safety of mast lowering using a spinnaker pole because of the dangers of the mast swaying from one side to the other. Johann Tanzer is developing a custom designed device for mast lowering on the Tanzer 22 single handed. Price is yet to be determined; but it will be available in time for the summer sailing season. It is hoped that drawings and/or description will be available by the next issue of the Newsletter. In the mean time, inquiries can be addressed to Tanzer Industries.

 

MATERIALS NEEDED:

Two 6' lengths of 1x3 pine or spruce

1 1/4x21/2 bolt

1 spinnaker pole

1 25' length of 1/4" line

1 block (to take the above line)

 

Method:

Prepare 6’lengths by drilling 1/4" hole in each, about 1” from one end. Join these two with the ¼” bolt. You now have an "X" shaped support or mast crutch. The small end goes uppermost and will be used to support the mast before hoisting. The long legs are placed at the stern of the boat, on the seat, Supported at the ends by the sides of the boat.

 

Place the mast, with all rigging attached, head towards the stern, on top of the boat. Attach backstay, making sure it is clear of shrouds, etc. (if the rudder is not attached at this time, it makes things easier so leave the rudder below).

 

Raise the mast crutch, placing mast on same. While one person holds the mast crutch, with the mast on it, the other moves the mast far enough astern to bring mast foot in line with mast step. Insert mast foot bolt. Until mast is ready to be hoisted, one person should hold the crutch, to ensure that it doesn't slip and allow the mast to fall.

 

Slacken off completely the two inner shroud turnbuckles. Attach same to chain plates. At this point, the mast is attached at the foot, supported by the crutch, and held in place by the lower shrouds. Now, install the block on the stem fitting, using the rearmost hole.

 

Attach the 25' line to end of forestay, or to shackle end of jib halyard (making sure that the other end is securely cleated to halyard cleat!). Use a bowline to attach this line. Now feed this line forward and through the block on the stem fitting, and bring back to snubbing winch, wrapping on 3 or 4 turns.

 

Put one end of your spinnaker pole through the bowline you've made where you attached your 25' line. Raise pole up vertically, placing either end of pole on the mast step. There are a couple of holes in the forward side of the mast step. Pass a piece of line through these, and through the end of the pole at the same time. This will keep the pole in place. Now all is ready!

Provided you don't leap around too much, you will no longer have to support the mast crutch. The weight of the mast will keep it in place.

One person starts to wind up the line on the winch, which will raise the mast. The other can grab the crutch before it falls. As the mast is slowly raised up, the one who isn't winching tightens the lower shrouds, keeping enough tension on them to ensure that the mast is supported as it goes up. Continue until the mast is up, at which time the spinnaker pole can be removed and the forestay secured at the stem.

 

Connect upper shrouds, and adjust all for proper tension. To lower, reverse procedure.

 

If you are merely going to lower your mast part way, e.g. to pass under a bridge, you could dispense with the mast crutch, and let the 25' line take all the strain. But be sure your lower shrouds are taut, so mast will not wobble from side to side.

 

An alternative to a mast crutch as described above would be a crutch using a couple of pintles to fit your rudder gudgeons. This also makes a nifty way to transport your mast when trailering the boat.

 

 

TRAILERING THE TANZER 22

John Charters

 

The writer has the fin keel Tanzer; and while this article discusses trailering this model, most of the points covered apply equally to the centerboard boat.

 

Before we discuss trailers for your T22, let's talk about the towing vehicle, your car. It is my firm conviction that any car smaller than a full size American (or Canadian) one will not be adequate. That is, unless your only towing is a once-a-year trip down to the yacht club from your house, in that event, skip to the end of this article.

 

Many have the mistaken idea that what is needed in the car is poswer, 400 cu. in. or so. This, of course, is wrong. That is why a full size, heavyweight car makes a better towing vehicle than a small, powerful sports car.

 

If you are in the market for a new car, get one with the optional trailer towing pack. It’ll cost about $100 more; but is well worth it. Your local dealer should be able to give you the manufacturer's towing re­commendations, including what engine, maximum weight, etc. Depending on the car you buy, the trailer pack will give you heavy duty suspension, transmission, rear end; plus a lower gear ratio for more power, increased cooling capacity and assorted other heavy duty goodies. You also get a wiring harness for the trailer electrics. Keep in mind that you will be towing some 3500 pounds, so use this as a minimum figure in your calculations.

 

If you are not buying a new car, several things can be done to your present one to make it suitable. Install load levellers on the rear suspension. Install a higher pressure radiator cap - at least 16 psi, or, perhaps, 18. When you tow something as heavy as a T22, you need all the extra engine cooling capacity you can get. Increasing the cap pressure will raise the boiling point of the coolant, perhaps just enough to avoid boiling over. On a long up-hill haul, you can help matters by driving in low gear. And don't use the car air-conditioning, if you have one. Keep an eye on the temperature gauge, and if it starts to creep up, raise your engine revs by driving in a lower gear. While you're at it, keep an eye on the gas gauge, too, as you'll use far more gas than usual. I forgot, and ran out of gas during the Sunday evening rush on a two lane freeway. You have no idea how unpopular one can get with cars piling up for miles behind! Especially if you have to climb up on your boat to get a can of outboard gas. Your car will run on pre­mixed gas OK; but you'll get a lot of engine “ping”; so you should top up with high test as soon as possible.

 

If you are only going to use the trailer once a year - on your holidays for example, then a good heavy duty frame hitch will probably do the trick. If you are going to do more trailering, however, an equalizer hitch is almost a must. This'll cost you another $100, plus installation. While we are talking of hitches, you should have about 10% of the total trailer weight on the hitch; so we are looking at a hitch weight of 300-350 lbs. Two strong men should just be able to lift the loaded trailer at the tongue.

 

Please resist the temptation to pile the boat full of stuff. What we want is the lightest possible trailer, towed by the heaviest possible car. Load all the heaviest things in the car; the lightest in the boat. A boat on a trailer behaves very much the way it does on the water; load too many heavy things at the ends, and she'll hobby-horse. If you must carry extra gear in the boat, try to keep it as close to the center of balance as possible. There is a limit to what one can either carry, or tow. Check your owner's manual. Given a choice, I'd rather over­load the car than the trailer!

 

So much for the car. As for the trailer, you don't have much choice. You should have a 4-wheel one. The one sold by Tanzer Industries is a well built, rugged unit, and it will probably outlive us both.

 

The question of trailer brakes is, to say the least, controversial.

If your state or province has strict laws on this, there is no choice. Otherwise, there are three alternatives: no brakes, electric brakes and hydraulic brakes. My car owner's manual advises that “the direct connection of hydraulic brake lines from the car brake system to the trailer system is not acceptable." Therefore, if you wish to have hydraulic brakes, they will have to be of the "surge" type. Electric brakes are efficient; but if you intend to launch in the water, I cannot recommend them. Salt water, in particular, will make havoc with the connections. Your choice, then, is between surge brakes, and no brakes. If you drive a late model full size car, with power discs, and most of your towing is on good roads; then I don't think that you need brakes on the trailer. If you have a light weight car, nonpower brakes, or expect to travel over hilly country; then brakes are almost a necessity. I have trailed both with and without trailer brakes, and there are drawbacks wither way.

 

With surge brakes you have no real control over the amount of braking. As you apply the car brakes, the surge unit will apply whatever braking force is designed into it. You cannot increase, or decrease, the amount of trailer braking. If one brake seizes up, there is not much you can do about it. This is always a possibility if your brakes are wet from hauling out; so actuate the brakes a couple of times at slow speeds when starting out. Don't wait until you are up to 60MPH and are faced with an emergency stop.

 

Without trailer brakes, there is always a possibility of not being able to stop in time; hence, you'll have to drive more defensively. In the days of the standard shift many drivers used the car engine as a brake; and shifted down when they needed extra braking. I am surprised, however, how few drivers know that one can still do the same thing with an automatic transmission. My car will drop into second at around 70mph, and low at about 25MPH. You may be able

To “kick” it into low at higher speeds by flooring the gas pedal for a brief moment. Try it out (without the trailer) and see for your­self.

 

With or without brakes, it is a good idea to inspect the wheel bearings after the trailer has had a dunking. Salt water, especially, is hard on wheel bearings.

 

Your trailer, of course, should be fitted with rear lightss, with brake and turn signals. If you are going to be launching often from the trailer, consider installing the lights on a removable bar. You can tie or bolt this unit on the rear of your trailer, or boat, and remove before launching. It’ll last much longer.

 

Your Tanzer Owner's Guide gives complete instructions on how to launch; but if you want to make things easier, especially on retrieval, install a pneumatic dolly wheel at the tongue. This wheel should be non­swivelling. Get fancy, if you wish; and install this auxiliary wheel on a folding arm so that it can be swung up when not needed. Or it can simply be a unit you bolt on.

 

If you wish to make a really fool-proof system, build a tow bar extension. This is a tubular bar, long enough to allow the trailer to reach its required depth and still be connected to the car. At the car end, this bar is fitted with the normal trailer hitch. The other end is fitted with a pair of dolly wheels, and a 2” ball.

 

If you don't have a tow bar extension, you will have to use a chain or heavy nylon line to attach the trailer to the car. Beware! 1/2” nylon isn't strong enough. I had mine break. The whole unit slid back down the ramp and disappeared into the murky deep. I had to hook my anchor onto the trailer and manhandle it back into position. If you use a rope, splice a couple of good size thimbles onto each end and fasten to the trailer and car with heavy shackles.

 

To make retrieval easier, fit your trailer with blocks, or wedges, of wood so that your keel will settle into the trailer in its proper position as you haul out. If you can install some sort of stopper on the trailer so that your boat will be prevented from overriding, things will­go much better.

 

I am beginning to distrust local knowledge when it comes to launching. Experts come in two sizes; those who say it can't be done, and those who say it can. Both, invariable, are wrong. So before you launch, check the depth. The fin keel needs about 5'; the CB, a foot and a half less. If you have kept all of that heavy junk out of the boat, you can get away with a bit less. If conditions are really marginal, you could try letting some air out of the trailer tires, gaining another couple of inches.

 

I guess we all dread the thought of having the trailer come “unstuck”.

A number of things can cause the trailer to sway from side to side; a passing truck, uneven tire pressure, sudden gust of wind, not enough weight on the hitch, and probably a dozen more. If this does happen, what one must do is "stretch" the rig. If you do have the electric brakes, with an independent manually controlled unit, then you can apply light trailer braking. If not, you'll have to speed up the car. This takes some courage - all your instincts will tell you to slow down. Once the trailer falls back into line you can slow down; but not before!

 

I make it a point to check the hitch before setting out, and do a fast inspection every time I stop. Things like tire pressure, trailer lights, safety chains should be included in this inspection.

 

If all you want to do is to haul your boat a couple of miles spring and fall, you can build a sort of dolly. An axle with a couple of wheels can be fixed to your cradle with a U bolt; and tubular tow bar will connect it to the car. The Tanzer factory advises that, to be on the safe side, the base of your cradle should be reinforced because all the weight will be concentrated at the axl. If you under inflate the tires 10 MPH should be about the top speed you go.

 

One last tip; before you set off, check with your insurance company. Make sure you are properly covered for both the boat, car and trailer, and for third party liability. Yacht and car Insurance policies vary from company to company. Check your local sailing magazine - agents specializing in yacht insurance generally advertise. Make sure, also, that you are covered for the area in which you plan to sail. Most policies cover only a specified area. Should you stray outside that area, the company may deny liability. The additional premium for the added coverage is small. A phone call to your agent before leaving is all you need to do.

 

If your route takes you over the Canadian/U.S. border, it is a wise idea to have your ships papers, license, measurement certificate, factory invoice, etc. in the car. Customs people are a tiresome lot, at best. For no good reason, they sometimes ask for all sorts of unusual details. However, few of them are that knowledgeable about sailboats, so the more bits of paper you can produce, the better able you will be to confuse with logic. I am sorry! Perhaps I’m a bit hard on our Customs people. To tell the truth, I’ve never had any trouble at the border. But I do carry all relevant papers pertaining to boat and skipper in the car ­not in the boat.

 

If you have other ideas, tips and thoughts on this subject, please send them along to the Class Association, and we'll include them in the next newsletter. And in the meantime, if you see a red Dodge pulling a red Tanzer, wave as you go by, please.



CRUISING PENOBSCOT BAY AREA, MAINE: 1972

Katy and George Selkirk

 

In August, 1972 we put in at Rockport, Maine just a few miles south of Camden. Camden- is too busy a port; and Rockport was perfect for mooring, facilities, ice, showers and food nearby. Mr. Lucien Alien and staff are always ready to help. Mrs. Allen's Restaurant" The Sail Loft, has superb cuisine. There is no ramp there; but there is a Travelift which is OK at high tide. $20 for hoist; $35 for unstepping the mast and hoisting out.

 

Excellent coves and harbours for gunkholing:

 

PULPIT HARBOUR on North Haven Island. No facilities; but lovely.

 

BUCK HARBOUR AT north end of Eggemoggin Reach. Beautiful secluded anchorage; friendly Yacht Club, general store close to club that opens at 7am and offers more than you are used to. The P.O. is South Brookville, Me. Water and ice available.

 

MACKERAL COVE on Swan's Island. Found just in time because of a 24 hour fog; and another time when en route Casco Passage to Mt. Desert in a rain storm.

 

NORTH EAST HARBOR. More civilized than we like; but full of facilities, ­all you'd ever need. Town dock loaded with large yachts. The skipper of a 32' ketch was overjoyed to see us arrive as he had the smallest boat there!

 

TENANT'S HARBOR. Great spot for safe anchorage - good port in a storm! Spindrift Cruises very friendly and accommodating.

 

BLUE HILL HARBOR. Yacht club friendly. Beautiful spot, intriguing countryside.

 

This coming August we plan to put in at So. Freeport, Me. and cruise up the coast to Penobscot Bay; and go as far as possible. There are so many more places to go and see, such as Southwest Harbor, Horseshoe Cove, Isl. ­au Haut, Burntcoat Harbor; and perhaps the Castine area. Anyone want to join us? Our address is 793 E.Main St., East Aurora, New York 14052. We were the only T22 during the first two weeks in August; and did we ever get favorable comments! The boat performed beautifully. We have a keel/CB; but in deep waters and high winds we were fine. We just wish we could take her to the Grenadines. We've just returned from there; and never saw a yacht smaller than 39 feet. But the winds off Maine aren't too different at times; and the navigational aids are much better. We saw only one aid down in the Grenadines, and that was on St. Vincent.

 


LIGHTNING PROTECTION FOR YOUR TANZER

John Charters

 

The title is, perhaps, slightly misleading, because lightning is always ­unpredictable and there are no guarantees. There are, however, some things you can do which will make your boat almost lightning proof.

 

The principle of lightning protection for your boat is to ground all metal parts; "ground" in this case being the water. To ground everything metal on your boat, of course, is almost impossible; but we can reduce the risks to an acceptable level.

 

We all know that lightning tends to strike tall objects first. Therefore the logical place to start a grounding program is with the mast and stays. The simplest way to ground the mast is to fasten a piece of chain to the backstay and/or forestay and dangle this chain at least two feet into the water. A screen or copper plate attached to the underwater end of this chain will increase its effectiveness. A battery booster cable clamp makes a good fastener for the stay end. This method of grounding is temporary, and best suited for when you are moored, or anchored.

 

A more permanent method is to connect the mast and shrouds to the keel with #8 or heavier copper wire. The mast step is through bolted, and

it is easy to run your copper wire from the mast step bolt to a keel bolt The wire should take the most direct route possible. Run it on the forward side of the bulkhead - it'll be almost invisible. Similarly, connect both upper shrouds via the chain plates to the keel.

 

If you wish to be even more cautious, then run your #8 wire from the forestay and backstay down to the keel as well. At the same time, it wouldn't hurt to connect the pulpit, stanchions, etc.

 

During a thunderstorm you and your crew should go below if possible; and should avoid touching rigging or large metal objects. Especially avoid touching, or bridging, objects connected to the grounding system, or other metal fittings.

 


MOVING THE BOAT - FROM BAIE D'URFE. QUEBEC TO BURLINGTON, ONTARIO

Harry Welch

 

As I mentioned in the Fleet No.1 news, this trip was made in ten days. It was an excellent experience, and I recommend it to anyone who is transferred and must move his boat. The current is a little strong in places, and even with a good wind you can do a beautiful job of sailing backwards.

 

So, down sails, and on with the motor. We found the 6 HP motor quite adequate in all currents, even loaded as we were. I recommend a spare tank as made by the motor manufacturer. Pouring gasoline from a can to a tank, in the dark with a flashlight, and with a couple of large seaway vessels bearing down the channel, can be hair raising! It's mainly ­motor up to Kingston; but from there on, there is lots of sailing, if you get a breeze.

 

The compass is a good idea - we hit one stretch of fog. On that occasion we ran out of wind and also gasoline. (It was just poor planning - two 5 gallon tanks are plenty for most stretches.) For awhile, we had fog horns on one side and CNR diesels on the other, and couldn't see either. Rather strange, when you don't know whether you're going to get hit by a train or a big ship!

 

I've recorded the approximate miles, which may help someone making this trip;

 

September

1

25.5

Miles

Left Baie d'Urfe. Got to Lake St.Francis at 1:30.

2

 

28.7

Anchored behind Colquhoun Islands, near Cornwall.

3

24.2

Chrysler Park Marina.

4

40

Anchored behind Arvey Island near Brockville.

5

44

Anchored at Knapp Point, near Kingston.

6

29.5

Anchored at Main Duck Island.

7

54

Kept going all night.

8

38.5

Port Hope Harbour.

9

61

National Yacht Club, Toronto.

 

10

 

29

Bronte Harbour.

 

 

374

Miles

Total

 

 

On Saturday, September 8 we hit a beautiful strong, steady wind all day. We left Port Hope at 11:30 AM and arrived in Toronto at 8:45 PM, just as it turned dark: about 61 miles in 91/4 hours - all by sail, straight as an arrow. Try that on Lake St. Louis!

 


BATTERY CHARGER

Don Cranda11

 

I recently learned the following in a yachting magazine, and thought it useful:

 

"The maximum rate at which a battery can be charged without damage is about 10% of the battery's ampere-hour rating. For example, if your boat battery is rated at 70 ampere-hours, you should not use a battery charger rated higher than 7 amps. Don't buy a battery charger of the type usually sold at automotive stores because they are usually unregulated. That is, they don't shut off when a battery is fully charged.



WINTER SAIL STORAGE

The fo11owing is extracted from an article that appeared in "Sailboat Week", sent to us by Eric Spencer. The suggestions are made by Nat Snow of the Hood sail loft in Marblehead, Mass.

 

1. Sails should be stored clean and dry. If stored wet, or in a damp place, they wil1 mildew because of salt or dirt left in them. Salt left on sails will draw moisture.

 

2. If sails are carefully folded for storage, they don't need refolding over the winter. Fold a genoa lengthwise and then roll it up. Flake down a main sail and roll it across the foot. Stretch out a spinnaker on the floor and roll it continuously so there are no sharp angles and folds than may turn into wrinkles by spring.

 

3. Sails may be washed at home in the bathtub. Use warm water, a very­mild detergent; and walk on-them, pushing them around in the water.

Rinse them very well, and hang to dry. The home method seldom gets out all the grime; but does remove a lot of the salt and the surface dirt. Never use a dryer.

 

4. If you sail in salt water, at every opportunity throw fresh water over the sails to wash the salt off.

 

5. Very light 3-in-1 oil or spray silicone lubricant can be used in the barrels of the genoa snaps.

 

6. Do not store sails out in the garage on the cement floor. Sails act almost like a sponge and draw. If there is any oil or grease on the floor it will draw right through the sails.

 

 

LOCKING THE MOTOR TO THE TRANSOM BRACKET

Stirling Maxwell

 

Replace one of the bolts that fasten the bracket to the transom with a longer one. A stainless steel fitting with a ring on it is attached by this bolt. With a bit of luck, you may find a stock fitting that will do the same job.


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