No. 16 - April, 1975



Continued from Newsletter 14, January.

Joe Moore


A short note to let you know that the first leg of our trip is completed as scheduled and we neither sank, nor lost our mast. I only mention this because boats in our general area did just that. I am referring to a NW gale in the Gulf of Mexico during our passage out of the Keys, up to west coast of Florida to Tampa - St.Pete.


We left Miami on November 18 and spent the next week in the keys, trying to fish and dive for lobster. Not much success. We were not taken with the Keys. Very poor holding ground and most of the area is very "honky tonk" and expensive.


Other items of interest: Official weather forecasts are unreliable. In the winter months the wind is NE to NW 90% of the time at speeds of 15 knots to 45 knots, regardless of predictions. It can be difficult for a small boat to sail north from Nov. 15th to April 1st if deep in the Keys. (we went 3/4 of the way down the chain).


On November 27th we left the Keys for the west coast of Florida, arriving at Marco on the 29th. Our best days run so far was 75 miles (statute) in 11 hours, all under sail! From Cape Sable to Marco the wind was 28 knots, gusting to 35 and we were hard on the wind all the way. The main was reefed down to the first pocket with the working jib up. One boat in the area lost her mast on this date, and there was a reported sinking after striking a shoal. We can verify the dismasting, as we observed it. Can't verify the sinking.


The Gulf is so shallow that 15 knots of wind will raise a 5 - 8' short, steep sea. It is hard to get to windward unless proper sail combinations are used. The seas keep knocking a small boat back. It is out of the question to use power in this situation - the OB motor will not stay in the water.


On December 5 we arrived at St.Pete. This terminates the first half of the trip. On April 15th we will start across Florida via the canal, and then to the Bahamas. We'll head North and home by June 15th. So far we have covered 1625 miles.



Commander Byron Crawford, Box 83, East Haven, CT


I have made several trips to Florida in my T22 via the ICW. Because of the time, 5-6 weeks) and cost, I strongly suggest trailering down. Going 'inside', you're under power most of the way and you're doing well to average 40 - 45 miles per day. Marinas charge 20 – 40 cents per foot – though many quuiet anchorages can be found.


I have now a twin axle Harcourt trailer with electric brakes. I recommend a mast carrier to fit in the rudder gudgeons. I stopped along the way in trailer camps with no problems, and also had the advantage of having a car while in Florida.


I single hand my boat and beat many larger boats - including a Bristol 30, which causes a lot of comment! I have a roller furling jenny and also lead my main halyard aft to the cockpit. If any readers would like more information, they can write to me at the above address.

By the way, space at Marinas in Florida, especially in the Miami area, is hard to get, and you should certainly reserve ahead.



CLEAN YOUR WINDOWS with brasso to get rid of scratches and fogging. (Jacques D'Avignon)



ROY K. EEHM, no. 502 (Rte 1 Box 169 Medical Lake WA, USA 99022)


Note: Roy has sent us the most complete cruising guide to the

Pacific Northwest imaginable. It will be serialized over several

Issues; and then, because there are so many fine detail charts, we’ll send the original material to Puget Sound Fleet so that some of the material space limitations prevent us from using will be available to T22ers on the west coast.



My wife Ione, my daughter, Marilyn and I sailed our T22, Buffer, from our home near Apokane to La Ccnnor, WA, vhere the boat was lauched at the La Connor marine repair yard. There are no public ramps at La Connor. We moored at Shelter Bay Marina - a private development which offers guest moorings, as does La Conner Marina. The latter is presently being expanded.


We spent three days rigging and provisioning the boat, ohecking out our gear, swinging the oomp­ass, and enjoying the perfect weather. La Connor has an excellent restaurant which we can highly re­commend - The Lighthouse. La Connor is only 15-20 miles from Arlington, where Tanzer Yachts is located.


On June 21 we left the marina and headed North out of the Swinomosh Slough (the waterway separating the mainland from Fidalgo Island).

This slough is long and narrow, with a 2 - 4 knot current running at

times. It is dredged to 15-20 feet, and with care in following the fairway, there is little problem. A sailboat must signal the bridge-_ keepers near the north end of the slough to open the highway bridge and a railroad bridge. A blast and a half will do it, or one can call them on VHF-FM channel 13. After clearing the slough, Anacortes, WA, is visible off the port quarter.We didn't stop. However, good facilities are there. Sailboat hardware is not plentiful in Anacortes, though marine supplies of a general nature are available.It's best to go on to Seattle or Vancouver, B.C. if you need anything for sailing.


One heads westerly from Anacortes following the Guemes Channel towards the San Juan Islands. The tidal current in Guemes Channel may be unfavorable and should be figured into one's plans, as it can run 3 - 4 knots. This time they were not in our favor, so we couldn't sail, and continued on with our motor. We proceeded on to our destination, Deer Harbor on Orcas Island in the San Juans. This was a 37 mile trip from La Connor. It took us 6 hours.


Deer Harbor has a nice marina with gasoline, diesel, general supplies, fishing gear and bait, a grocery store, showers and a laundromat. A shuttle bus operated by the store will take customers up about 1/2 mile to a restaurant, from which there is a fabulous view of the harbor.


Continued next issue. Those planning cruises in this area should carry extra water - 18 gal. minimum - ditto fuel. A dinghy is a necessity. VHF radio is handy, but should be equipped with ch. 21 & 23.




John Charters


Suddenly, in the last few months, we have been getting enquiries regard­ing cloth weights as specified in our Class Rules.


There are two, in fact three, different measurement standards. There is the British Standard, which is based on a square yard - that is, on a lineal yard of 36” in width. The American Standard is based on a lineal yard of 28 1/2" width. Referring to the chart, 5 oz. British system works out to 4 oz. American; and Rule 3.3 so states. Where the confusion seems to be entering the picture - our members are giving the British specs to their sailmakers, who assume them to be U.S. specs - which would make the sails of much heavier cloth than is actually specified. The thing to do is to entirely disregard the British specs and only consider the US Standards (28 1/2" lineal yd.) when dealing with a U.S. sailmaker. Or give him a Xerox copy of our sail specs. He is familiar with both systems and will have no trouble.


When Canada goes metric (soon!) we'll be working with a third system: grams per square meter. Then we'll get a whole bunch more letters!


Just to clear up a final question: Are our cloth weights realistic? Yes! I have talked with several sailmakers, and (discussing U.S. standards, now) a 5 oz. main and jib is plenty light enough for a boat our size - that all our minimums are a little low. Similarly, 4 oz. for the no. 1 Genoa and 4 1/2 oz. for the no. 2 are bare practical minumums. And any owner who expects to get more than two years out of his sails might consider getting each sail one weight heavier. Remember, however, that if you are racing in Class events, you can only replace sails every two years - see Rule 3.12.

Our permitted minimum for the spinnaker is ¾ oz; and once again, this is just about as light as one should go. A point of interest: Dave Miller of North Sails (1972 Olympic Bronze medal) feels that star cuts and Tri­radials are a waste of money for 22' boats. Stick to an ordinary radial head.




Don Crandall

If you are fed up with feeding the mainsail boltrope into the mast track every time you go sailing, a more connenient system is using slugs.


In practice, you sew a stainless steel bail to the boltrope of the main­sail every 18" - except that you sew the first one about 6" down from the head of the sail. At the beginning of the season you feed in the plastic slugs into the track in your mast - instead of the boltrope. A sail stop in the bottom of the mast track prevents the slugs dropping out when the sail is lowered. In effect, the luff of the sail stays in the track.


You may need a new sail cover to fit over your main sail when you switch to slugs. There is now an accumulation of sail material at the angle made by boom and mast which is not there when you flake down a sail with just the boltrope - so your old cover may not fit.


Sail slugs cost about 35 cents each and you will need about 10 of them, as well as the twine to sew them on.



SAIL STOP IDEA from Bill Hibbard of Parkway 7 Marina:


Use a large cotter pin, S.S. - same as that at the tack of the main sail, with a retainer wire riveted to the side of the mast and a hole drilled through the side of the mast sail slot. Costs less than the one mentioned in the last Newsletter, doesn't get lost overboard, and works better.



TRAILERS: Dick Powell, T22 dealer - SAILAWAY, in Minneapolis has worked with a local trailer manufacturer to develop a good custom trailer for the K/CB model. It has tandem axles, large tires, keel guides, an 18' extension for easy launching at shallow ramps, plus other features. Contact Dick at SAILAWAY, 9717 Palmer Rd.


INSECT REPELLENT: Mort Levy recommends REFEX as the best stuff to use. The McGi11 Geography Department is using it. If it works on them, it should work on us!



John Charters

The year 1976 and 7 meters are important numbers for Tanzer 22 owners. Depending on how you measure a T22, we are just a touch over, or a touch under, 7 meters. (7 meters is 22.969 feet.)

Why 1976? Because on Jan. 1, 1976 the new International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea come into effect.

Why 7 meters? Because that's the dividing line. Under 7 meters a sailing vessel is not required to exhibit running lights; but need only “have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision". And In the same vein: "A power driven vessel of less than 7 meters in length and whose speed does not exceed 7 knots," (that's us) “may in lieu of (normal running lights) exhibit an all around white light."

However, before you rush out and tear off your running lights - 7 meters is also the dividing line for vessels using the St. Lawrence Seaway. Under 7 meters and you are not considered to be large enough for passage through the locks. (Minimun now is 20' LOA.)

So we'd better make up our minds in the next few months: Are we 7 meters long, or not? Certainly, if you measure our boat from pulpit to out­board motor and rudder, we are well over 7 meters; and I assume that for all practical purposes that is really the overall length of a T22. I, for one, am not prepared to trade the dubious advantage of not need­ing running lights on the high seas for restrictions on passage through Seaway (& other) Locks. In any event, State and Federal Law may still require running lights on inland waters on boats 7 meters and under.

An interesting option in the new rules for sailboats under 12 meters is that your sidelights "may be in combined lantern carried at or near the top of the mast where it can best be seen." Which is fine and dandy when you have 12 - 15 foot waves; but probably not too practical in calm inland waters where boaters are used to looking for running lights at water level - not 30' up in the air.

Finally, Section (e) of Rule 25 states: "A vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by machinery shall exhibit forward where it can best be seen, a conical shape, apex downward." NO COMMENT!

The new (1975) Canadian Small Vessel Regulations are of particular interest to us as there have been some changes in the requirements for boats in the 5.5 m (18') to 8m (26' LOA).

Item 1 requires one approved small vessel life jacket OR approved per­sonal Floatation Device for each person on board. This easing of life jacket regulations follows similar steps taken by the USOG a few years ago. Be warned, however, that not all life vests or "floater coats" have been approved by the Ministry of Transport. Look for the approval label inside before buying. If one isn't there, it is either not an approved PFD, or is last year's stock. Either way, you should be able to negotiate a substantial discount!

Mustang Sportswear style no. 1600 "Floater vest" and their style no. 1808 "Floater Coat" have been approved; and Jacobs & Thompson's "Foam

Float" has also met the Ministry's approval. Others will, I'm sure, be approved as these meet the MOT standards.

Under Item 5, you now must carry "one of the following throwable devices", i) an approved life saving cushion. ii) A buoyant heaving line. iii) An approved 508mm (20"), 609 (24"), or 762mm (30") life buoy. Apparent­ly, the horseshoe buoy is not included as MOT approved. If you are stopped by the RCMP you'll be expected to conform with these new regul­ations. Incidentally, I believe the Canadian Coast Guard is about to take over these Policing duties from the RCMP. Time will tell if this is a good thing, or not!



continued from Newsletter 15, February


REFERENCES: Fiberglass Boats (revised) by Hugo Du Plessis; Modern Marine Maintenance by John Duffett; Repair of Fiberglass Boats by Owens/ Corning; boat Repairs and Conversions by Michael Terney


When cutting, fit the cloth first. Don't resin it, drape it and then cut off excess after the resin has set. A staple gun can be used to hold the cloth to receive the resin. Monel staples can be left in ­otherwise, take them out before the resin sets.


When fitting the cloth around a compound curve, leave an overlap of several inches, or it is difficult to get the material to lie nicely on the surface.


When wetting the cloth with resin, wet both sides. The bottom side can be done by placing the cloth on a piece of wax paper, then applying it to the surface being repaired and removing the paper. This is better than wetting the surface, placing on the patch, and wetting the top surface.


A few goodies from Du Plessis: Most wood preservatives have a deadly effect on polyester resin. . . Foam polystyrene is attacked by polyester resin, though an epoxy sealer will protect it. . . Whenever attaching a fitting, reinforce the moulding with a block of wood backing it up to spread the load and prevent stress and delamination. Bed the block on sealant or "wet" mat. All corners must be well rounded and edges bevelled to reduce stress concentrations.


HOLES THROUGH THE LAMINATE (refer also to part i): Work in 60 to 80 degrees, and avoid humid weather. Inspect the hole from inside to determine to extent of the damage to the laminate. You must cut back to completely sound material, and the edges must be "feathered" to receive the new cloth and resin.


Remove surface dirt with detergent and water, and clean the area with acetone before cutting back to sound material. On the outside of your hull, using an electric drill and a burr or a sanding disc, camfer the edges of the hole, about 44 degrees. From inside, rough sand 3 - 4" around the hole using first a 24 grit disc, and then a 50 grit. Wipe off all dust and clean with a solvent. You are going to layer like this:


Cover with cellophane a piece of cardboard, and don't criticize the grammer. Or use polythene. Cellophane of a stiffness comparable to that used in photo albums is good. With the cello side towards the hull, tape the cardboard/cello to the outside of the hull with a 5 - 6" overlap around the hole.


You can do the gel coat part now, or after completion of the patching. If you do it first, thicken it to a thick creamy consistency with a thickening agent ("Cab - O - Sil"). Working from the inside, apply it to the cardboard template mold through the hole and around the edges of the cut out - about 1/32" thick. Cure to nearly tack free on rear surface.


Now cut a series of mat and cloth patches - a few the same size as the hole, then graduating to about 3 - 4" larger than the hole. Use mat first and wet thoroughly with catalyzed resin. Alternate layers of resin soaked cloth and mat. Aseach layer is applied, work out the air. A good way to do this is to cover with cellophane and squeegee from the center to the edges. Don't remove too much resin. Air bubbles show white in the patch. If you are making a patch over 3/16” thick, leave the cellophane on, and allow these first layers to cure to a leatherlike state. Then finish the layering. Leave cellophane on and cure several hours or overnight. Carefully remove cellophane and cardboard template.


Using a 100 – 220 grit paper, sand the area until the join line disappears. Wipe off the dust and clean with acetone. Fill imperfections in the gel coat with catalyzed gel coat thickened with Cab-O-Sil. Spray with polyvinyl alcohol and let cure. Wash off the FVA. Sand with 220 Wt sandpaper and clean with acetone. You can spray the area with thinned gel coat using a disposable aerosol powered spray unit available from Defender industries. Spray with FVA and allow a complete cure. Buff and wax.


If you elect NOT to put the gel coat on first: mask around the hole

and build up with mat and cloth until slightly above the outside surface (to allow for shrinkage). Place cellophane over patch and squeegee out the air bubbles. Leave cello on until parch feels rubbery. With a razor blade, trim off the excess cloth and allow an overnight cure.


Using a 24 grit disc, blend down the edges into the surrounding area. Puncture any air bubbles and inject resin with a syringe. Finish sanding with finer discs.


Now you gel coat. Work it into the patch with your fingers to load the weave of the cloth and fill the voids. Cover with cellophane and squeegee smooth. Cure overnight. If it is a large patch and you are brave enough, it is best to spray the final gel coat, thinned 50:50

with a recommended thinner. Sand between spraying with 220 and finish with 400, 600 and 800 wet sanding. After last coat of gel coat, spray with a PVA for complete cure, which is later removed with acetone. Buff with a polishing compound and wax.




Information supplied by Jacques D'Avignon


By January, 1978 all Hydrographic publications except charts will be

in metric units only. The conversion of all charts is progressing as rapidly as possible - to be completed no later than 1980. 8y January, 1977 all Aids to Navigation publications will be converted (dual dimensions). But by 1979 all dual dimensioning will be discontinued, and only metric units will be used. This includes Sailing Directions, Light Lists, Notices to Mariners, manuals and publications relating to radio aids and international Regulations for the Prevention of Collision at sea.


Here at the Newsletter we are making a valiant effort to think metric. We've figured out that 7 meters is 22'. So a meter is a yard. One gram is about = to a raisin and 28 of them work out to about an ounce. A Kilometre is a small mile. And thank God no one can fiddle with the latitude scale on our charts - we can still find our nice old nautical miles there. If a fathom was good enough for Drake, Nelson and Captain Ahab, it's good enough for us.



If you have a Coleman or Sears camping stove (gas), and want to convert it to alcohol for use on the boat, there is now a very simple kit - and cheap, too. Available from NASHCRAFT Marine products, San Juan Capistrano, CA USA 92675. Parts are of stainless steel and just snap on. The combined price of the kit and a Coleman stove is less than 1/3rd that of a conventional marine alcohol stove. John Charters has tried it out and is very impressed.