No. 11 - June, 1974


Don Crandall  (January 3-10, 1974)


Bareboat cruising is one thing that all salors should experience as soon as possible. All it takes is money.


Five of us (all men) chartered a 42' sloop from Spice I sland Charters and had the boat deadheaded from Grenada to St.Vincent so that our cruise would be all beam winds. (the deadhead charges were $150.) The bareboat charter itself cost $100 per day in total, and in the off season (May - December) the cost is about 30% less.


We had to do our own provisioning in St.Vincent because of the strike in Grenada; and it was a very worthwhile experience - especially buying fruit and vegetables in the local market.


The winds - always from the east - blew about 35 - 45 knots the entire week, which made for pretty active sailing. Local experts said they were about 10 knots above normal. But January and February is the period for highest winds, with lighter winds (15 - 25 knots) in April - June. It's a great experience surfing down fifteen foot waves in a 42' boat; but, honestly, the Grenadines in January are not for the uninitiated or timid! Calmer 'winds are to be found in the Virgin Islands and the Bahamas. No serious problems were encountered and the only damage we sustained was a bent stanchion, in an uncontrolled jibe, and a 45 degree bend in the shaft of our 22 lb. Danforth stern anchor.


You don't spend as much time sailing as you might think because of the proximity of the islands. We varied from about two to six hours a day. But you do a lot of swimming, snorkeling and exploring.


We left St. Vincent on a Saturday and visited Bequia, Mustique, Cannouan, Tobago Cays, Palm Island, Fetite St.Vincent and Carriacou - ending up on the south coast of Grenada the following Saturday. Each island had its own particular charm, and it's impossible to pick a favorite. We spent 2 nights in Bequia and climbed to the top of the hill to visit Lulley's Yacht Supply store, one of the best in the area. Mustique is beautiful, but expensive (it's privately owned). The Tobago Cays (totally uninhabited) is fabulous for swimming and snorkeling. We bought 40 lbs of lobster from a local fisherman and watched them being cooked for us. Palm Island is very small, but, again marvellous for swimming and snorkeling. Most of the islands are hilly and great for stretching your legs.


Just'a couple of hints before closing. All the guide books say not to take your wet gear. I disagree - you get doused with plenty of spray. The light weight type is ideal for staying dry in. Take high quality sun tan lotion, as well as a sun screening agent - you spend most of your time in the sun. Check the Consumer Reports for top quality products


It astounds me the number of people who buy junk, and have a vacation cruise ruined by sun burn. An old pair of light cotton pajamas provide a good cover up when you have had enough sun. This is the coolest rig you can wear. Take at least two boating hats - you will lose at least one. A waterproof camera or camera casing would be useful.


It's not too early to start making plans for a cruise next winter!



Thinking, I suppose, that the Newsletter gets lonely with nothing on lightning for so many issues, Jacques d'Avignon has sent us some fasinating reading from "The Lightning Book" by P.E. Viemeisten. It's long. So I'll so a 'Readers Digest' on it for you.


The early Greeks told of the strange powers of Castor and Pollux, the twin sons of Leda and Jupiter and brothers of Helen of Troy. Their special powers were revealed when they sailed with the Argonautic Expedition. During the voyage an unually severe thunderstorm arose. Orpheus played his harp and prayed. As he did, "stars appeared at the heads of the brothers" and the storm dramatically abated. Believed responsible for the calming of the storm, Castor and Pollux were subsquently worshipped as patron deities of seamen and voyagers. The basis for this legend may have been the appearance of corona or St.Elmo'.­fire on the boys' hair. St. Elmo's fire may play at the tops of masts and is sometimes accompanied by a crackling or fizzing noise. This glow discharge is evidence of a strong difference of electrical potent- ­ial between the glowing object and the atmosphere, so experienced sailors know that St.Elmo's fire often precedes a stroke of lightning.


There is no record of the total damages incurred by sailing vessels through the ages because of lightning. But the Royal Navy had a particularly difficult time. There are many reports of ships being hit in the 1700's. Sometimes lightning traveled down the masts and punched holes in the hull, sinking ships.


Captain Cook had an "electrical chain" made of quarter-inch copper links hoisted to the masthead and hung into the sea water on Endeavor whenever a thunderstorm threatened. Lightning struck while the ship was tied up at Batavia. Captain Cook wrote: "Lightning chain which we had just got up . . . conducted the lightning over the side of the ship; but though we escaped the lightning, the explosion shook us like an earthquake; the chain at the same time appeared like a line of fire." A Dutch ship without a chain, "not more than two cables" away from the ­Endeavor had its mainmast carried away after it was split.


The chains were not the best solution. The appearance of the "line of fire" was due to lightning jumping the insufficient contact area betweern chain links. The poor contact between links so reduces the current ­carrying capacity of the chain that side flashes can occur that could damage other equipment aboard ship.


No less than 35 sailing ships of the line, 13 frigates and 10 sloops were disabled or greatly damaged by lightning in the years 1810 - 1815 in the Royal Navy.


In 1847 a study was made of 220 ships of the Royal Navy that had been hit by lightning. One ship was struck 5 times in a single hour. All told, 90 seamen were killed and almost 200 were wounded. The study was made by a Sir William Snow Harris, who recommended making the mast itself a conductor by nailing copper strips from top to bottom and connecting these strips to copper plates on the bottom of the ship. The technique was eventually adopted by the Royal Navy and there was a significant reduction in ship losses.


Lightning damage to smaller boats is common - and expensive. About 1% of the fires on motor boats are caused by lightning. Sailboat masts are frequently hit even though taller boats or objects are in the near vicinity.


The mast and each stay should be grounded (to your keel bolts on a

T22) with no. 8 AWG bare copper wire. If you are caught out in a thunderstorm: stay below decks where practicable. Stay away from large metal objects (motors) that are not grounded. They may pick up a sizable induced charge and if you are in the way, lightning may find you to be the path of least resistance. If you have a lightning protection system, avoid simultaneous contact with more than one object connected to it. Don't make yourself a shortcut for any surge of lightning that may be going through the protection system.



SAVE THE CREW: It isn't a good idea to disconnect the topping lift when sailing. If you forget to re-connect it, or if the main must be lowered quickly, someone can get bopped on the beam by the boom.

But you don't want' it chafing the leech either. To keep it away from the leech, you can fasten a length of shock cord to the lower end of the lift, stretched until it is about 1/3 the length of the lift. Under tension, seize the shock cord in 3 places to the lift. Or, if you still have trouble with the upper part of the leech fouling the lift when you tack you can try this: Place a thimble around the topping lift; seize a piece of shock cord around the thimble, then seize a polished bronze or SS thimble to the backstay 1/4 of the way down from the mast head. Slide the topping lift thimble until it is level with the eye on the backstay, then run the shock cord down the back­stay, about 1/6'th of its length, pull tight, and serve to the back­stay. The topping lift will then be kept tight against the backstay when beating; but will have enough slack (from the stretch) tc function off the wind. (Thank you Donald Street, Jr. in "The Ocean Sailing Yacht".)



SAIL AWAY: Is there a nicer way to leave an anchorage? Here's how to leave the harbor with everyone's admiration (rather than scorn).

To break out the anchor when you are lying head to wind, more or less, first reduce the scope. Then, keeping the sheet eased, raise the main. Set the jib. Put the tiller to the windward side of the tack you want to get off on and back the jib to make the bow payoff - then sheet it it to leeward. As you sail ahead haul in the rode until it is taut and catch a turn on the cleat - which will put you round on the other tack. Sheet the jib to the new leeward and again as you start sailing, haul until the rode is taut. Again catch a turn, pulling the bow round

on the other tack. Sheet the jib to the new leeward and again as you start sailing, haul until the rode is taut. Again catch a turn, pulling the bow round to the other tack. Repeat until the anchor has broken out.


As sailors, whether racing or cruising, we are really concerned only with the wind. A beautiful day is a waste without it; and that hot rum sure tastes good when you’ve been cold and wet. So let's forget the sun­ - that unreliable fairweather friend; and talk about the wind.


All wind or weather predictions are based on the assumption of certain generalizations. And all generalizations are false, they say. So when you get a week of heavenly weather with the wind steady from the East, as we did last summer, don't turn around tell God, “But I read in the Newsletter that. . .”


There are plenty of people this article isn't for. It isn't for those who are interested in the distinctions between Maritime Arctic Air and Continental Arctic air. Neither is it for those who want a lot of nifty 18th Century poems to memorize.


To predict the wind we've got to know what weather is coming. And we have to know where our bad weather comes from. Around Montreal it comes from Toronto. It also comes up the Atlantic coast. And it sweeps across the Great Plains. Every low on the continent ends up in Montreal. Well, most of them.


Highs are easy. They're good. Except that the center is usually a large area of little or no wind. Highs are associated with westerly quadrant winds, slowly rising barometers, red sunsets and a bright white moon. (But a day of exceptional clearness, when it seems the atmosphere is truly transparent, ALWAYS is followed by rain.)


And you know what a low is. It's what's going on around that upside down, kicked in ”V” they draw in the weather books. Its center is at the vertex and it's surrounded with arrows like quills on a dizzy porcupine.~ the right leg of the “V" is the warm front; and it is being chased by the cold front leg. The center is windy. Knowing where it is helps you predict what the wind'll do. Head into the wind, and the center will be just abaft your starboard beam.


Now, if a low is coming at you and you're on its center line, you'll get a SE wind and a falling barometer. An S-SE wind means a storm is coming from the west or northeast and the center of the low will pass over you or to the north of you in 12 - 24 hours. The wind will increase as the center gets closer; and if it passes right over you the wind may drop as it does so. Thereafter you'll get a strong NW wind and the barometer will rise. A rapidly rising barometer when it's been very low should put you on guard for a big blow from the NW.


If, on the other hand, the center passes NORTH of you, the wind will swing from SE to SW and W. You'll get the warm front first. It may be followed by a brief spell of fair weather (and rising barometer).

(As the barometer stops falling, the wind will veer.) With the clearing of the warm front cloud line there is often a line of low ragged clouds athwart the wind. Watch for this because with the passage of the front the wind will veer sharply and be gusty. The veer can be 45 degrees or more and on starboard tack can knock you down. Low clouds scudding in from the right of the existing wind warn you of the coming shift.


The clearing before the cold front is usually temporary, and the winds are from the Sw. The appearance of alto cumulus clouds and a falling barometer tell you the coming cold front is about 100 miles away. With the cold front the wind veers suddenly to the W or NW. A squall line often travels in front of the cold front - up to 100 miles before a fast moving front. The speed of advance is about 25 knots - so the thunderstorms appearing on the horizon will get to you in about 1 1/2 hours. Generally, the first gusts will be 15 knots over the prevailing winds; but if the cloud base is really low and ugly, add on another 10 knots. The bad weather of a cold front passage is of short duration.


By the way, if the cold front catches up with the warm front, it's called an occlusion. Winds associated with this thing veer sharply.


Suppose the center of the depression is going to pass to the South of you. Winds between N and NE and a falling barometer indicate an approaching storm from the S or SW. If you are north of the center the winds will back, shifting to NW by the way of the N. You miss the warm front­/cold front business because you are above the vertex of that "V" thing referred to earlier. But you get stinky weather none-the-less.


A day's advance warning of the approaching warm front may be had from gradually thickening bands of high altitude "mare's tails" - cirrus clouds. Sometimes these clouds lace around the sky in fair weather. They only mean business if they thicken, look cohesive and gradually fill the sky with a whitish film. The film might make a halo around the moon - if there is one, or around the sun. The bigger the halo, the sooner it'll rain. If, in reference to the sun or moon, you see these very high clouds in motion, there's a serious depression coming and you can expect a gale in 6 - 10 hours. As we mentioned, the barometer falls and the winds back to the SE.


Usually, the longer the symptoms last the longer the bad weather will be around. And the more rapidly the barometer falls, the stronger the winds associated with the system. Those little lines curving around the weather maps are lines of equal barometric pressure. The closer they are together, the stronger the winds.


Red sunrises are bad news. A bright yellow sky at sunset means wind. Plane yellow means rain. The infamous "mackeral sky" always indicates rotten weather.


And now let's hear from YOU about your special local conditions. New T22‘ers in your area, or people trailering to cruise or race in your waters would be glad to know that there is never wind before xx time, or that an xx wind brings fog, that clouds in xx directions are meaningless - but watch the ones over 'there'.


If you're planning to sail down the Atlantic coast in January, we refer you to Adlard Cole's book.


If you're heading for Lake Champlain this summer, the following may be of interest. It is authoritative but I've had it hanging around for years and years and can't remember the source to credit. Not a T22er, however.


Lake Champlain has almost no fog during the summer months. Prevailing winds are 60% southerly. Most of the weather originates to the west, but is diverted by the Adirondacks, which it finally bridges along the St. Lawrence River Valley to our north, or the Mohawk River Valley to our south.


Because Lake Champlain is narrow and deep, water temperatures are colder than might be expected, not reaching the low 60's until mid or late June. The lake remains quite warm (mid 70's) late in the fall for the same reason.


Wave action during any heavy winds is choppy with seas running 3-5feet. Winds are generally southerly for 3 or 4 days, switching suddenly ­to northerly, and then gradually over a 2 - 3 day period returning to southerly.


Weather fronts usually come from a northerly direction and are often accompanied by very strong, gusty winds. The wind can swing 180 degrees within minutes, and for short periods of time winds can exceed hurricane~ force. So beware and be prepared. Periods of calm, overcast and oppressive weather often precede a sudden, dramatic climatic shift which could surprise the unwary with fierce seas and winds.


In the Burlington area, radio station WVMT, 620 on the dial, gives the best weather reports. In the southern area of the lake rely on WIPS in Ticonderoga and in the northern section tune in to either WEAV or WIC in Plattsburgh. You can call the U.S. Weather Bureau in Burlington at 802-862-2475. When asking them for information, tell them exactly what part of the lake you want the information for as conditions can vary widely - with a flat calm at one place and a gale at another at the same time.



TWO GOOD IDEAS FROM MORT LEVY: In rough weather, tow a long line of polypropylene (it floats) with knots in it: a man overboard will have something to grab onto. . . Your medicine kit - first aid kit aboard should have a bee sting kit included in it. Could save a life. They are available at large, commercial nurseries and garden supply stores.


To protect your charts and permit many erasures, spray them with acrylic spray - often sold as an ignition sealant in aerosol cans. It stinks – do it out side.


An anonymous contribution for the Newsletter. Printed without comment. (!)


A lusty old salt named Andy

Was an expert on racing and brandy.

His wife greatly enjoyed

Both Shakespeare and Freud;

But he preferred Sally Ranti.


A stainless steel fitting (not wire) that has been dangerously overstressed will show a definite magnetic attraction. Richard Henderson says so.



AND LEAD US NOT INTO EXAGGERATION: ( JEEZE, those waves were 10' high category.) The maximum wave height a 30 knot wind can (theoretically) cause with a 2 mile fetch is 2' . . . with a 10 mile fetch it is 5', and with a 30 mile fetch it is 12'. With a mean speed of 40 knots and a fetch of 5 nautical miles the maximum height is a measly 3 1/2'. Waves become higher, however, in a wind against tide situation. But - for consolation - you can add to the reading of a hand held anemometer 1/3 to get the gradient wind at 33', which is correct for the Beaufort notation.


If you're heeled down in swells and/or big waves, don't strap your boom vang down hard. If you do, and the end of the boom dips in a sea, you're going to risk breaking your boom.



KNOT STRENGTH: A bowline is only approximately 60% as strong as the line it is tied in; a sheet bend and a reef knot are only 50% as strong. An eye splice is 95% as strong as the line, and a short splice is 90% as strong.




John Charters

I was talking to that "fast-goer", Ted Bowser, who gave me some more details on the 1/4 ton Nationals, where he sailed his Tanzer 22 1/4 ton to a fourth overall, just a couple of points off third. Up wind, at the finish of one race, they clocked 7 knots. With a hull speed of 6, that takes some doing! In another race, off the wind, which was in the 35-­40 knot range (l), using main, working jib & spinnaker, they pegged their knotmeter at 12 knots for over a half hour. The San Juan they stayed with during all this time, (with a 16 knotmeter), later reported that they peqged theirs at 16 a number of times. Ted feels, they probably hit 18 during some of the stronger gusts. At these speeds, the 22 lifts its hull right out of the water, and leaves a glorious rooster tail behind. Who was it that said that a Tanzer 22 won't plane? It was on a planning jibe that Ted passed this same San Juan, skippered by Bruce Kirby. Bruce missed his jibe, broached. Ted didn't. We are going to miss Ted, he left Tanzer, and is now the General Manager of Performance Sail craft - the Laser people. We all wish him luck in his new job.



The later model Tanzer 22's have a square hole cut in the gas tank shelf, Makes getting into that spot much easier.


Hans (Tanzer) is working on an inexpensive gizmo, to be permanently attached to the keel bolts, so that you can lift, or lower your boat without having to use straps. More details, price, etc., as soon as available.


For those that live near Montreal, Custom Fittings, in Cascade (tel.453-3751), are good people to know. There is practically nothing in the line of custom work that they won't do. So, if you want some special fitting made, or repaired, drop out and see them. Open Saturdays, too! They made me a goose neck hook for jiffy reefing, similar to the one in the March "Sail" One dollar! Doug Bertoia (555) who sails that pale green T22 "Ceneda", is working on an "all rope" main sheet traveller. Custom Fittings made him a special ring arrangement for it, and only charged him four dollars. More details in the next issue.



Maureen Plucinsky


Last winter my husband designed a spinnaker for the Tanzer 22. He is an aerodynamic engineer and a keen competitive sailboat racing enthusiast.


He conceived the idea some years ago but has only recently resolved the most difficult problem of applying flat surfaces to a curved shape.


It is now possible for him to precisely calculate the shape of each pane for a given spinnaker design.


In addition to the spinnaker specifications, the primary design features are the camber to chord ratio in two directions. Each panel is calculated perpendicular to the luff. The cross section chosen is that which the material assumes when subjected to an aerodynamic load. The method at present produces the conventional cut. However, the data available can be used to produce a radial cut or any combination thereof.


He has calculated a variety of designs from 10% to 30% camber to chord ratio and has experimented with models in an improvised tunnel. The results indicated that a flat 15% spinnaker would fly well. To test the design we made a full scale version for our boat number 404. The spinnaker did behave remarkably well. We flew it on April 28 and May 5. (Ed.Note: Maureen's letter arrived in mid May. Gossip has it that this spinnaker is a very fine one and that the Plucinskys have also been seen with a particularly well setting main, also of their own production.) We experienced no difficulty flying it, even with our no.1 Genoa up on a run. In fact, it was possible to place the spinnaker completely on the side opposite the main sail since it wants to fly and does not act as a drag chute. On a reach it performs exceedingly well with the Genoa pulling also. We could sail a very close reach before we en­countered difficulty with wind shifts.The spinnaker pulled with very little additional heeling.


(The Plucinsky's address for those who want more details: 65 Delery, Boucherville, Que.)


Sandy MacDougall, sail no. 437.


(It's a good day for the Newsletter when something comes in from Sandy! He's also looking for plans to build a dinghy, about 8'. If you know where he can beg, borrow or steal plans for a dinghy that will tow well, he's at 6 Cross St. Ingersoll, Ont. N5C IA9)


You made mention in the April Newsletter of the bridle arrangement I outlined for bringing the boat onto the trailer when not equipped with a bow eye. If the trailer winch mast were high enough to give a straight pull from the bow cleat, the whole arrangement would be unnecessarily high. Therefore, with an average winch mast, this bridle arrangement seems to work best, for this reason: When ready to retrieve your boat, the trailer is at an angle to the horizontal surface of the water and the boat floating on it. As you draw the trailer and the boat out of the water, the boat settles back. That is, the fore - aft horizontal plane of the boat becomes parallel to that of the trailer. The stern settles down and the bow goes up. With this bridle, the bow can go up or down freely with the strain now on a bow eye or bow cleat or whatever.


This method is predicated on the proper location of the trailer winch mast, and points up the need to do a little thinking when looking for a trailer. The point I want to make is the freedom of the bow to go up without losing the pull from the winch mast.


FOUR LIGHT UPPER COMPANIONWAY DROPBOARD: I laid out a frame the exact dimensions of the board it replaces, two inches wide. Then I divided the resulting opening into four. The inner edges of the dividers and the main frame were dadoed to take the lights. I used clear plastic.

And then I made ¼ - round strips to hold the glass in place. The outer edges of the frame were dadoed to conform to those of the original board. With the added light, the cabin interior is certainly less claustrophobic. (Ed. note: Brian Best, sail no. 142, has made a Plexiglas panel the size of the upper board. It is teak framed and has a fitting at the top so that the cabin can be locked with the Plexiglas in place.)


MAIN SWITCH PANEL: Another innovation I thought useful was to place the main switch panel on the right side of the galley. There is enough room to recess the panel deep enough so that you are not apt to push the toggles on or off inadvertently. I increased the recess by making a teak frame around the opening. Also installed a 110 volt system to take advantage of shore power, and located an outlet beside the switch panel. I ran an extension from that to another, forward of the main bulkhead; and, along with a 90 ampere hour battery, installed a battery charger to operate from this extension.


GIN POLE: I got my gin pole for raising the mast out of an old Polaroid sunglasses display. It comes conveniently apart in the middle and one end has a steel furl welded on it -- ideal for welding on eyes with rings.


RUDDER DE-WEEDER: An idea so simple it works! You scrounge a length of small aluminum tubing - hollow so it'll float when you stop up both ends. To one end you attach an aluminum U, which will slide down the rudder and whoosh off the weeds. There is a choice of 1,000 mounting places which are handy. (Thanks to Jack Walker. Who sails another boat.)




If you normally sleep in the forward cabin when cruising and wish that the head were someplace - anyplace - other than the normal location, you may be interested in this idea from E.A. Ollis, sail no.23, 147 Jell Park Ave., Toronto, Ontario.


My head is mounted on 3/4" plywood which slides on 3/4" Gibb Genoa track, and slides neatly out of the way beneath the cockpit when not in use. The slides are epoxied in notches in the bottom of the board; and the track is epoxied to the floor of the cabin.


A 3-s plastic holding tank (available from Leckies, Tom Taylor, or, at a discount from myself) fits neatly at the back of the area under the cockpit. The tank is 18" x l8" x 12" high, and comes with most necessary hardware except the water intake through-hull. Retail price is between 120 and 135 dollars.


When drilling the hole for the water intake through-hull, it seemed that I drilled and drilled, never penetrating the hull. When the hole was finally complete and the plug removed, I was surprised to find that the fibreglass was 3/4" thick (I assumed that this indicated some strength in the hull.)


I will be happy to furnish more details on the installation on request.



CENTERBOARD CABLE: Jerry Greene, sail no. 584, had an accidental cb drop which resulted in the cable breaking. Tanzer Industries sent him a new cable, with the following information included in the covering letter. “It is certainly true that, if the centreboard is allowed to drop any appreciable distance, the pennant will break. The centreboard weighs about 100 lbs. and the breaking strength of the wire used is about 1900 lbs. I think you will agree that in normal circumstances this should be adequate. I had a long conversation with John Charters about this cable. He pointed out the fact that if you have a cable that won't break no-matter-what, the size of the cable would be such that the drum size to roll it up on, winching and all that present insurmountable problems. Centerboards are always causing problems around here - though not on T22s because most local sailors choose the fin keel model. . . Jerry also tells us that though this is his first season of ever racing, he placed 3rd and 9th out of 16 MORC rated boats - with working sails.In heavier winds of 15 MPH and up his boat really steps out and holds her own.



John Charters and Doug Bertoia have imported from Holland a very jazzy - and very expensive - lock for their outboard motors. 2 pieces of tubing with a Yale lock fit over the motor clamps. You push 'em together, click and lock. There's no padlock to cut off with some bolt cutters. A local marine supply had a similar device available - but it no longer is or will be. You could make some device using this idea, or John's, quite easily. I snuck down to the club to stand behind Dave Houlding's boat, no.370, and draw it for you. Please bear in mind that I flunked art in 5th grade.



Jeff Creamer asks if anyone has found a permanent method of sealing this seam. He points out, correctly, that the boat "works" when sailed hard, with resultant failure of the sealant. This is a common problem with all boats, or almost all. My feeling is that we should forget about "permanent" and settle for "seasonal". By spending many hours with caulking gun and tubes of sealant we achieved a completely dry boat. But it is certain that everyone would appreciate a really good answer to Jeff's question.



So far as Class Rules are concerned there is no requirement that you carry your sail number on overlapping headsails. Your no. 1 Genoa is called a 180%, which means the percentage by which it is larger than the working jib. It is also possible to express this percentage as a percentage of either the 100% of the fore triangle or a rated fore triangle area. NAYRU and IYRU do require sail numbers on overlapping head sails. A no. 1 Genoa conforming to Class rules is about 170% LP. Class requirements do not take account of any rating rule, so if you intend to race under MORC, you should order your Genoa to gain maximum benefit from their rule.



Binoculars are a useful navigation tool on board any boat - if only to see that skimpy bikini more clearly.


Somehow 7 x 50 has become the magic set of numbers for boating glasses, even though 6 power is much steadier than 7 on a bouncing boat, and has a wider field; and you only need the '50' if you do a lot of night sailing.


Fred Clark, in The Telltale Compass, points out the size and weight advantages of roof prism binoculars over the bulky poro-prism type. He endorses the Zeiss Mini 6x20, which is almost cigarette pack size, 4 1/2 ounces and very rugged. $159.



Saw in July "Yachting" how we can use a pressure cooker for an oven. The pressure gauge is not used. The rack in the bottom of the cooker keeps the pan you are baking in away from direct heat. At about 350 degrees, steam will begin to escape from the valve. When it does, you can put one or two asbestos pads under the cooker so the bottom doesn't get too hot. You keep the flame low enough to just maintain a small stream of steam from the pressure valve, and the interior heat will stay just about 350. (You start with high heat - until the steam starts.) Use the normal baking time - and don't peek or you'll lose all that heat. You don't put any water in - the steam is created by the moisture in the food. Meat can be "roasted" in this way, as well as cakes, pies, quick breads and coffee cakes.


Since supper time aboard is hardly the time for experiments, I hope that some of you will drag home the boat stove for the winter and tryout this method so the rest of us can use your recipes next summer.



SNEAKY DANGER - FATIGUE: "Sail" magazine has had some words lately about fatigue. The kind you get at sea in a storm after 30 hours at helm. I'm not talking about that kind; but the kind you and I get. The kind that of course isn't dangerous because it's just 'tired'. Or is it?


This summer we set out from Sodus for Fair Haven. About 14 miles. We missed it and ended up in Oswego, of all places. How? Stupidity.

We fell asleep. Our 12 year old son was taking his trick at the helm. No one had told him to watch out for Fair Haven because we are not so irresponsible as to ALL fall asleep with the boat in the sole care of a kid, no matter how competent he is. But that's what we did. Elsewhere it could have wrecked us on a shoal.


Another night, after another 14 hour day, we anchored sloppily and slept soundly through one Hell of a storm. We were lucky and didn't drag. It is plain lousy seamanship to allow yourself (ourselves) to get so tired that a change in the motion of the boat doesn't wake you up and warn you to get up and out on deck to check things over.


The great danger is that you don't realize how tired you are. The brain gets lazy and relaxes its eternal vigilance. The minute it does, you can end up in a dangerous spot (or in a filthy place like Oswego). So be warned by our example of poor seamanship.